Page Summary: Biblical Studies on Christ, Christology, Jesus, Son of God, His Incarnation, Humanity, Deity, Life, Teachings, Work on the Cross, Resurrection, Ascension, Hypostatic Union, His Mother, Names of Christ, Offices of Christ, Title of Christ, theofanies, Christ's appearances in the Old Testament, Pre-existence of Christ, etc.

David Cox's Library of Religious Works Main Page
32.03 Deity of Jesus Christ

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32.03 Deity of Jesus Christ

32.03.00 Bibliography of Works   32.03.05 The Divine Attributes of Jesus Christ
32.03.01 Introduction 32.03.05.01 Jesus is God Almighty (Omnipotence)
32.03.02 The Divine Essence of Jesus Christ 32.03.05.02 Jesus is Omniscient
32.03.02.01 Jesus is a man, not a Celestial Angel. 32.03.05.03 Jesus is Omnipresent
32.03.02.02 Jesus is either man or God, or both. 32.03.05.04 Jesus is Eternal
32.03.02.03 Jesus is Equal with God the Father John 5:14-32; John 10:30-31; 32.03.05.05 Jesus is Immutable
32.03.02.04 Jesus' submission to God the Father 32.03.05.06 Jesus shares the Divine Will
32.03.03 The Divine Names of Jesus Christ 32.03.05.07 Jesus shares the Divine Intelligence
32.03.03.01 The Messiah is God 32.03.05.08 Jesus shares the power to give Life
32.03.03.02 The Word (Logos) of God  
32.03.03.03 The Only Begotten (John 1:14, 18)  
32.03.03.04 The Image (Col 1:15) 32.03.06 The Divine Abilities of Jesus Christ
32.03.03.05 The Exact Image (Heb 1:3) 32.03.06.01 Jesus' Power
32.03.03.06 The First Begotten (prwtotokos) 32.03.06.02 Jesus as God in His relationship with the Church
32.03.03.07 The Primary Designation of "God" 32.03.06.03 Jesus' Divine Authority is seen in His Teachings
32.03.03.08 God incarnate "God with us" 32.03.06.04 Jesus' Divine Authority is seen in His Commandments to Men
32.03.03.09 The Good Shepherd 35.03.06.05 Jesus' Ability to Raise the Dead
32.03.03.10 Jesus is the Lord (Jehovah), the I AM 35.03.06.06 Jesus-God has shed his blood for the Church
32.03.03.11 The Lord of Lords  
32.03.03.12 The Holy One 32.03.07 Direct Statements to Jesus' Deity
32.03.03.13 The Husband 32.03.07.01 Jesus Externally Exists: John 1:1-2 JWs; Prov 8:22-31; Titus 2:13
32.03.03.14 The Rock 32.03.07.02 Jesus is the Son of God
32.03.03.15 The True God A. What does the phrase "son of something" mean?
32.03.03.16 B. The phrase "Son of God" is exclusively used of Jesus as God
32.03.03.17 C. Jesus' Sonship means inherit Power, Right, and Authority
32.03.03.18 D. Christ's unique relationship with God the Father
32.03.04 The Divine Offices of Jesus Christ 32.03.07.03 Jesus is the Christ, the Messiah
32.03.04.01 Jesus is Eternal, the Everlasting, the First and Last, Alpha and Omega 32.03.07.04 Jesus is God: John 20:28; 1Jn 5:20; Isa 9:6
32.03.04.02 Jesus is Creator  
A. Deu 4:32; B. We are to worship our Creator Psa 95:3-6; 32.03.08 NT Testimonies to Jesus' Deity
C. Is to receive Glory. D. Gen 1:1; 32.03.08.01 Christ's Witness not Independent of the Father
D. Jehovah, the Lord God, is the Creator;  
E. Jesus is the Creator of the Universe; F. Eph 3:9;  
G. Jesus is the "Firstborn"; H. Christ Being the Savior also recreates us into New Creatures 32.03.09 OT References to the Deity of Jesus Christ
32.03.04.03 Jesus is the Savior 32.03.08.01 Jesus is Lord of All
32.03.04.04 Jesus is Owner and Head of the Human Race 32.03.10 The Perfect Holiness of Jesus Christ
32.03.04.05 Jesus is the Final Judge of Sinners  
32.03.04.06 The King of Israel  
32.03.04.07 The King of Earth  
32.03.04.08 The King of Kings 32.03.11 The Miracles of Jesus Christ
  32.03.12 Jesus receives Worship to himself.
  32.03.13 Heresies and Doctrinal Errors about Jesus Christ
  32.03.13.01 Arianism
  32.03.13.02 Athanasian Creed
  32.03.13.03 Unitarianism
   
   
   
 

32.03.00 Bibliography of Works

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Allen, Arthur - References to Deity of Christ in OT 88K (4 pages).
Allen, Benjamin (1789-1829) - Jesus Christ and Him Crucified, Trinity, Divinity, atonement flipbook (1822)
Ames, Edward Scribner - Divinity of Christ flipbook (1911)
Anderson, Robert (Author profile) - The Lord from Heaven (b) 202K (59 pages).
Barnard, John (1681-1770) - The True Divinity of Jesus Christ flipbook (1761)
Bauckham - Paul's Christology of Divine Identity
Best - The Son Declares the Father
Beza - Jesus Christ the Son of God
 (a) 43K ( pages) (1519-1605)
Bougaud, Emile (1824-1888) - The Divinity of Christ, an Argument flipbook (1901)
Bremmer - Deity of Jesus Christ (a) 120K (10 pages)
Brice, Archibald (1770-) - Scriptural Facts and Annotations on the Divinity of the Messiah flipbook (1799)
Bull, George
(1634-1710) - Catholic Church that Jesus Christ is very God flipbook (1855)
Burton, Edward - Testimonies of Ante-Nicene Fathers to Divinity of Christ flipbook (1829)
Claggett, John - Divinity of Son of God defended flipbook (1719)
Creed, John Martin - The Divinity of Jesus Christ flipbook (1938)
Didon, Henri (1840-1900) - Belief in the Divinity of Jesus Christ flipbook (1894)
Flavel - A Display of Christ - Part III (The Covenant of Redemption Between the Father and the Redeemer)
Flavel - A Display of Christ - Part IV (The Adorable Love of God in Giving His Own Son for Us)
Hawtrey, Charles - Appeal to NT in Proof of the Divinity of the Son of God flipbook (1794)
Hey, William - Tracts and Essays including Defence of Divinity of Christ flipbook (1822)
Hindmarsh, Robert (1759-1835) - Seal upon those who refuse to acknowledge divinity of our Saviour flipbook (1815)
Hindmarsh, Robert (1759-1835) - Letters to Dr. Priestley flipbook (1792) exclusive divinity of Jesus Christ
Horsley, Samuel (1733-1806) Tracts with Dr. Priestley on our Lord's Divinity flipbook (1789)
Jerome, Thomas Jefferson (1859-) - The Christ, the Evidence of His Divinity reviewed from a Lawyers Standpoint flipbook (1917)
Kelburn, Sinclare (1754-1802) Divinity of Our Lord Jesus Christ asserted and proved flipbook (1795)
Knight, James - 8 Sermons in defence of Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ flipbook (1721)
Laing, William - Philemons Letters to Onesimus subjects Christs Atonement and Divinity flipbook (1791)
Liddon, Henry Parry (1829-1890) - The Divinity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 8 lectures flipbook (1867)
Lindsey, Theophilus (1723-1808) - Examination of Robinson Plea for Divinity of Lord Jesus Christ flipbook (1785)
Marsh, Gideon W.B. - Messianic philosophy, evidence for existence, death, resurrection, ascension, and divinity of Jesus Christ flipbook (1908)
Memes, T.S. - Christian Treasury flipbook (1844)
Morris, William Bullen - The Divinity of Our Lord Jesus Christ from Pascal flipbook (1898)
Pitts, Aaron - Treatise proving the proper Divinity of Christ flipbook (1719)
Reeve, Joseph (1733-1820) - Practical Discourses in 2 Vols, Perfections and Wonderful Works of God, Divinity and Wonderful Works of Jesus Christ flipbook (1796)
Réville, Albert - History of the Dogma of the Deity of Jesus Christ flipbook (1905)
Rickaby, Joseph
(1845-1932) - The Divinity of Christ flipbook (1906)
Schaff, Philip - Person of Christ, perfection of his humanity as proof of his divinity flipbook (1880)
Seraphin, Father (1804-1879) - Suffering-Man-God, or Divinity of Jesus Christ resplendent in His Sufferings flipbook (1905)
Serle, Ambrose (1742-1812) - Horae Solitariae, Name and Titles of Jesus declarative of his essential Divinity and Offices, Trinity v1 flipbook (1784)
Serle, Ambrose
(1742-1812) - Horae Solitariae, Name and Titles of Jesus declarative of his essential Divinity and Offices, Trinity v2 flipbook (1784)
Sharp, Granville (1735-1813) Use of Definite Article in Greek, Proofs of Divinity of Christ flipbook (1803)
Smyth, Egbert Coffin - Divinity of Jesus Christ flipbook (1893)
Stuart, Moses - Letters on Trinity and Divinity of Christ flipbook (1834)
Vassall-Phillips, Oliver Rodie (1857-1932) - Mustard Tree, Argument on Behalf of Divinity of Christ flipbook (1912)
Vorsey, Charles - Examination of Canon Liddon's Bampton Lectures on Divinity of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus flipbook (1872)
Warfield, Benjamin Breckinridge (1851-1921) - The Lord of Glory, study of Designations of Our Lord in NT with especial reference to His Deity flipbook (1907)
Waterland, Daniel (1683-1740) - Vindication of Christs Divinity flipbook (1719)
Waterland, Daniel (1683-1740) - 8 Sermons in Defence of Divinity of Lord Jesus Christ flipbook (1720)
Whitelaw, Thomas
- How is the Divinity of Jesus Depicted in Gospels and Epistles flipbook (1883)
Williams, John (1636-1709) Vindication of Divinity and Incarnation of our Blessed Saviour flipbook (1695)
Worchester, Noah (1758-1837) - Bible News, Father, Son, Holy Spirit flipbook (1810)
(1) On the Unity of God. (2) On the Real Divinity and Glory of Christ, (3) On the Character of the Holy Spirit (4) Examination of Difficult Passages of Scripture.

Binney - Theological Compend (1875 Methodist) IID Jesus Christ (b) 571K (57 pages)
McDowell & Larson - Jesus, A Biblical Defence of His Deity#Jesus is God
McDowell & Larson - Jesus, A Biblical Defence of His Deity#Names and Titles of God
McDowell & Larson - Jesus, A Biblical Defence of His Deity#Jesus has the Attributes of God
McDowell & Larson - Jesus, A Biblical Defence of His Deity#Jesus has the Authority of God
McDowell & Larson - Jesus, A Biblical Defence of His Deity#God became man in Jesus
McDowell & Larson - Jesus, A Biblical Defence of His Deity#Early Witnessing to the deity of Jesus
McDowell & Larson - Jesus, A Biblical Defence of His Deity#Objections to the Deity of Jesus
Torrey, RA - What the Bible Teaches#Deity of Jesus Christ

Works against Christ's Divinity

Mitchell, Richard M - The Safe Side, theistic Refutation of Divinity of Christ flipbook (1893)

32.03.01 Introduction

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The deity of Jesus Christ is an essential issue in Christianity. Salvation is having Jesus on the throne of your life. Satan wishes to "dethrone" Jesus from this holy place as God and King of your life, and therefore part of the attack of Satan is to make people believe that Jesus is somehow less than full and complete God.

There can only be one of two options for the nature of Jesus. He is either Creator or he is a creature. Nowhere in logic or in Scriptures do we find a creature with the powers to create. In many of the arguments we will examine in this issue, the logic will fall on the attribute given to Jesus more than a clear "Jesus is x thing". The reason for this is that we are talking of the most special person that ever has existed, God.

The personal results for not fully believing in the deity of Jesus is that the person who rejects Jesus as God is condemned to perish in everlasting death (John 3:18). If we worship Jesus Christ when he is not God, divinity, then we have committed idolatry, and again we enter into the condemnation of God.

Arthur Pink

"And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life" (John 5:40). It was not lack of evidence but perversity of will which kept these Jews from coming to Christ. And it is so still. The Lord Jesus stands ready to receive all who come to Him; but by nature men are unwilling, unwilling to come to Him that they "might have life." But why is this? It is because they fail to realize their awful peril: did they but know that they are standing on the brink of the Pit, they would flee from the wrath to come. Why is it? It is because they have no sense of their deep and desperate need: did they but apprehend their awful condition their wickedness, their blindness, their hardheartedness, their depravity—they would hasten to the great Physician to be healed by Him. Why is it? It is because the carnal mind is enmity against God, and Christ is God. 

"I receive not honor from men" (John 5:41). Here again the Lord maintains His dignity and insists upon His Divine self-sufficiency. I "receive not" signifies, as in verses 34 and 44, "I seek not" honor from men. "When I state My claims, and complain that you disregard them, it is not because I wish to ingratiate Myself with you; not because I covet your approbation or that of any man, or set of men. He did not need their sanction: He could receive no honor from their applause. His object was to secure the approbation of His Divine Father, by faithfully executing the commission with which He was entrusted; and so far as they were concerned, His desire was not that He should be applauded by them, but that they should be saved by Him. If He regretted, and He did most deeply regret their obstinate unbelief and impenitence, it was for their own sakes, and not for His own. Such was the unearthly, unambitious spirit of our Lord, and such should be the spirit of all His ministers" (Dr. John Brown).

"But I know you, that ye have not the love of God in you" (John 5:42). How this makes manifest the omniscience of Christ! He who searcheth the heart knew the state of these Jews. They posed as worshippers of the true and living God. They appeared to be very jealous of His honor. They claimed to be most punctilious in the observance of His Sabbath. But Christ was not deceived. He knew they had not the love of God in them, and this was why they refused to come to Him for life, It is so now. The reason why men despise the claims of Christ is not because of any want of evidence on the side of those claims, but because of a sinful indisposition on their part to attend to those claims. They have not the love of God in them; if they had, they would receive and worship His Son.

"I am come in my Father’s name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive" (John 5:43). Unspeakably solemn is this. Israel’s rejection of Christ has only prepared the way for them to accept the Antichrist, for it is to him our Lord referred in the second part of this verse. Just as Eve’s rejection of the truth of God laid her open to accept the Devil’s lie, so Israel’s rejection of the true Messiah has thoroughly prepared them, morally, to receive the false Messiah; who will come in his own name, doing his own pleasure, and seeking glory from men. Thus will he thoroughly expose the corrupt heart of the natural man. How this exhibits what is in the fallen creature and demonstrates his depravity!

"How can ye believe, which receive honor one of another, and seek not the honor that cometh from God only" (John 5:44). "Honor" signifies approbation or praise. While these Jews were making it their chief aim to win the good opinion of each other, and remained more or less indifferent to the approval and approbation of God, they would not come to Christ for life. To come to Christ they must humble themselves in the dust, by taking the place of lost sinners before Him. And to receive Him as their Lord and Savior, to live henceforth for the glory of that One who was despised and rejected of men, would at once separate them from the world, and would bring down upon them contempt and persecution. But there is no middle ground: "the friendship of the world is enmity with God." If we are determined to be honored and smiled upon by our fellowmen, we shall remain alienated from God.

"Men are deceived today by the thought of building up man, the improvement of the race, the forming of character, holding on to themselves as though all that man needed was change of direction. Man is himself evil, a sinner by nature, utterly alienated from the life of God. He needs life, a new one. For what else did Christ come but that He might give it? He is not to be received with honors such as men pay to high officials, for they are like the men who pay the honor, but He is from above and above all, and has eternal life to give. He needs emptiness for His fulness, sinfulness for His holiness, sinners for His salvation, death for His life; and he who can make out his case of being lost and helpless gets all. It is not that men should do their best by leaving off vices and reforming, and pay devout respect to the name of Jesus and to religious rites, adding this to their goodness for God’s acceptance. It is that they should be as the poor man in the beginning of this chapter, indebted to Christ for everything: they must be receivers instead of givers. Receiving honor from one another vitiates the whole idea in regard to God and His Christ. We honor Him only when we are saved by Him; then, as saved, worshipping and rejoicing in Christ Jesus the Lord" (Mal. Taylor).
  Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 19.

R.A. Torrey

"While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them, Saying, What think ye of Christ? Whose son is he?..." Matt. 22:41-42.

The question that our Lord Jesus puts here to the Pharisees is the most fundamental question concerning Christian thought and faith that can be put to anybody in any age. Jesus Christ Himself is the center of Christianity, so the most fundamental questions of faith are those that concern the Person of Christ. If a man really holds to right views concerning the Person of Jesus Christ, he will sooner or later get right views on every other question. If he holds a wrong view concerning the Person of our Lord Jesus Christ, he is pretty sure to go wrong on everything else sooner or later. "What think ye of Christ?" That is the great central question; that is the vital question.

And the most fundamental question concerning the Person of Christ is — is Jesus Christ really God? Not merely, is He Divine, but, is He actually God? When I was a boy, to say you believed in the Divinity of Christ meant that you believed in the real Deity of Christ, that you believed that Jesus was actually a Divine Person, that He was God. It no longer means that. The Devil is wise, shrewd, and subtle, and he knows that the most effectual way to instill error into the minds of the inexpert and unwary is to use old and precious words and put a new meaning into them. So when his messengers masquerading as "ministers of righteousness" seek to lead, if possible, the elect astray, they use the old precious words, but with an entirely new and entirely different and entirely false meaning. They talk about the Divinity of Christ, but they do not mean at all what intelligent Christians in former days meant by it. Likewise, they talk of the atonement, but they do not mean at all the substitutionary death of Jesus Christ in our place by which eternal life is secured for us. And oftentimes when they talk about Christ, they do not mean at all our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the actual historic Jesus of the four gospels; they mean an ideal Christ, or a Christ principle.

So our subject is not the Divinity of Christ, but the Deity of Christ; and our question is not, is Jesus Christ Divine, but rather, is Jesus Christ God? Was that Person Who was born in Bethlehem nineteen hundred and twenty-one years ago, and Who lived thirty-three or thirty-four years here upon earth as recorded in the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, Who was crucified on Calvary's cross, Who rose from the dead the third day, and was exalted from earth to heaven to the right hand of the Father — was He God manifest in the flesh, was He God embodied in a human being? Was He, and is He, a Being worthy of our absolute faith and supreme love and our unhesitating obedience and our wholehearted worship, just as God the Father is worthy of our absolute faith and supreme love and unhesitating obedience and our wholehearted worship? Should all men honour Jesus Christ even as they honour God the Father (John 5:23). Not merely is He an example that we can wisely follow, or a Master whom we can wisely serve, but is He a God Whom we can rightly worship? I presume that most of us do believe that He was God manifest in the flesh and that He is God today at the right hand of the Father, but why do you believe so? Are you so intelligent in your faith, and therefore, so well-grounded in your faith that no glib talker or reasoner, no Unitarian or Russellite (JW) or Christian Scientist or Theosophist, or other errorist can confuse you and upset you and lead you astray?

It is important that we be thoroughly sound in our faith at this point and thoroughly well-informed, wherever else we may be in ignorance or error, for we are distinctly told in John 20:31 that "these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name." It is evident from these words of the inspired apostle John that this question is not merely a matter of theoretical opinion, but that it is a matter that concerns our salvation. It is to confirm and instruct you in your blessed faith, your saving faith in Jesus Christ as a Divine Person.

When I studied the subject of the Divinity of Christ in the theological seminary, I got the impression that there were a few texts in the Bible that conclusively proved that He was Divine. Years later I found that there were not merely a few proof texts that proved this, but that the Bible in many ways and in countless passages clearly taught that Jesus Christ was God manifest in the flesh. Indeed, I found that the Doctrine of the Deity of Jesus Christ formed the very warp and woof of the Bible.
  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

32.03.01A The Difference between "Deity" and "Divinity"

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In reality there is no difference between the terms "Deity" and "Divinity". "Deity" is a noun which means God, and "Divinity" is also a noun taken from the adjective "divine", or that which is of God. In theory there should be no difference between these two, but in reality, many people seek to make Jesus less than God in some way, and some would suggest that God the Father is "Deity" (fully God), and Jesus is only "Divine" (pertaining without specific reference to God). In other words, Peter, Paul, and John were also divine (pertaining to God) in some way but only God the Father is deity. On the discovery of this subtle usage of these terms by some writers, I will only use the term "deity" on this page.

32.03.02 The Essence of Jesus Christ

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The Westminster Confession of Faith declares

There is but one only living and true God, who is infinite in being and perfection, a most pure spirit, invisible, without body, parts, or passions, immutable, immense, eternal, incomprehensible, almighty, most wise, most holy, most free, most absolute, working all thing according to the counsel of his own immutable and most righteous will, for his own glory; most loving, gracious, merciful, long-suffering, abundant in goodness and truth, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin; the rewarder of them that diligently seek him; and withal most just and terrible in his judgments, hating all sin, and who will by no means clear the guilty. God hath all life, glory, goodness, blessedness, in and of himself; and is alone in and unto himself all-sufficient, not standing in need of any creatures which he hath made, nor deriving any glory from them, but only manifesting his own glory in, by, unto, and upon them: he is the alone fountain of all being, of whom, through whom, and to whom are all things; and hath most sovereign dominion over them, to do by them, for them, and upon them, whatsoever himself pleaseth. In his sight all things are open and manifest; his knowledge is infinite, infallible, and independent upon the creature, so as nothing is to him contingent or uncertain. He is most holy in all his counsels, in all his works, and in all his commands. To him is due from angels and men, and every other creature, whatsoever worship, service, or obedience, he is pleased to require of them. 

 

32.03.02.01 Jesus is a man, not a Celestial Angel.

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John 5:18

John 5:18 Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God.

If Jesus was just a celestial angel sent on a special mission to save mankind, then how can we understand his claim to being equal to God? Would a heavenly angel assert themselves being equal to God? Isn't that exactly what Satan did when he decided to follow his own will instead of the divine will? Any angel asserts their equality to the very God must be an evil angel, i.e. a demon.

As regards the angels, the Scripture insists that the Lord's Sonship distinguishes Him from them. "For unto which of the angels said He at any time, "Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee" (Hebrews 1: 5). Never has God called an angel His Son. Yet the angels are called sons of God in the book of Job. We suggest that this is because they had no progenitors and are all directly created by God to reflect His glory. In like manner the only man to be directly created by God, and not humanly generated, was Adam, and as he had no progenitor, he is called the son of God (Luke 3: 38).  Dronsfield, W.R.  - Eternal Son of the Father, Chapter 2

 

32.03.02.02 Jesus is either man or God, or both.

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John 1:1 "the word was with God" - Here the word "with" is "pros" in the Greek which means to stand before, face to face, on an equal level and footing. If Jesus is a created being, he cannot be on an equal footing or basis with God. Creator is not equal with creature. Rom 1:25 "who... worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator". It is impossible that Creator and creature be equal. God is not creation, God is not a creature. That is pantheism, making God to be the universe. God's presence is everywhere, and God observes and controls every place that exists Psa 139:7-10, but every place and thing is not God.

32.03.02.03 Jesus' Equality with God the Father.

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John 5:14-32

This passage appears to be the first time that Jesus publicly stated that God was His father. The reaction by the Jews present is as important as the statement of Jesus. This statement of Jesus has been twisted by many to simply mean that Jesus was submissive to God, just as any obedient Christian is submissive to God. But by twisting the real teaching of this passage to make it mean Christ is pledging his submission to God, it robs the passage of its true teaching as well as confusing the reality of Jesus Deity. The Jews standing in the Christ's audience well understood what Christ was teaching. He was teaching that HE (JESUS) IS EQUAL TO GOD. The point needs to be well taken that the phrase that Jesus used, "the Son of God", does not mean a submission to God as a good Christian would submit himself to God, but as Christ used it and as people of his day understood this phrase, the meaning is that Jesus was saying he was equal in essence and being to God the Father. In Hebrew and Jewish thinking, to make a claim of father and son relationship is to make a claim to the authority, position, being, and essence of the father.

Why did the Jews see this? Because in the Hebrew thinking, and in the Scriptures, a father is presented as being of the same nature as the one he begets. Here are a few examples:

There is the common term, "sons of Belial". Belial means "worthless", so the term "son of Belial" simply means a worthless person.

Joses was surnamed Barnabas by the apostles (Acts 4: 36), meaning "son of consolation", because he was by nature one who consoled for he was a good man who exhorted the brethren that with purpose of heart they would cleave to the Lord (Acts 11: 23-24).

The Lord surnamed John and James the sons of thunder.

Judas is called the son of perdition because he was by nature one that would perish. Perdition means perishing.

He called the Pharisees a generation of vipers because they had the nature of vipers. See also "children of light", "children of wrath", "child of the Devil", etc.

Every being begets after his own kind (Genesis 1). Therefore the Jews saw that if God has a Son, that Son has the nature of Deity. There is only One True Son of the same eternal essence as the Father — the Only Begotten Son.

But the objection will at once be raised, "If God has begotten a Son, there must have been a time when the Son was begotten, and therefore He has a beginning". This is quite wrong reasoning, for the right implication is exactly the opposite. If an eternal Father, without beginning nor end, begets a Son, that Son also must have neither beginning nor end; else He is not a True Son according to the Father's essence. God's nature is infinite, therefore His Son's nature is infinite.

We must abandon all reasoning from the finite. Every finite creature begets a finite creature with a beginning, but the Infinite begets the Infinite with no beginning. The word "Only Begotten" does not imply carnal or low thoughts of begetting, but implies equal nature. This is what the ancient orthodox teachers called "The Eternal Generation of the Son". The begetting is not an event of the past, however distant.
  Dronsfield, W.R.  - Eternal Son of the Father, Chapter 2

 

 

John 5:14 Afterward Jesus findeth him in the temple, and said unto him, Behold, thou art made whole: sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee.
John 5:15 The man departed, and told the Jews that it was Jesus, which had made him whole.
John 5:16 And therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus, and sought to slay him, because he had done these things on the sabbath day.
John 5:17 But Jesus answered them, My Father worketh hitherto, and I work.
John 5:18 Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God.
John 5:19 Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.
John 5:20 For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doeth: and he will shew him greater works than these, that ye may marvel.
John 5:21 For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will.
John 5:22 For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son:
John 5:23 That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent him.
John 5:24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life.
John 5:25 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live.
John 5:26 For as the Father hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself;
John 5:27 And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.
John 5:28 Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice,
John 5:29 And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.
John 5:30 I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me.
John 5:31 If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true.
John 5:32 There is another that beareth witness of me; and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is true.

What is important to understand about this passage is that Jesus plainly taught an equality of essence and power between himself as the Son of God, and God the Father. This teaching was understood by the Jews, and in John 5:18, it says that the Jews sought the more to kill him, because "he made himself equal to God." Whatever you may understand by this passage is one thing, but the Jews actually hearing Jesus speak these words and having the opportunity to know the context and question him "live" if there was any doubt, they clearly understood Jesus to be making himself equal to God. The Jews understood the claim of Jesus in being "the Son of God" as Jesus claiming to be equal with the very God of Christianity and Judaism, Jehovah.

If Jesus claimed that he was equal to God in every way, i.e. that he was God, then this presents some immediate thoughts and conclusions. Some would say that he is wrong in his assertion (for example, those denying the deity of Christ such as the Jehovah's Witnesses). First of all, we consider if he was only an angel. Being an angel, one would presume he is a good angel, sent from God. If that be the case, then if he misrepresented the truth here, then he must be excluded from being a good angel, and must be a demon. Nobody accepts that. So his position of being a simple angel is impossible. Next we see the possibility that he is a normal (non-divine man). If we consider this, then he must be delusional and off base because he makes himself to be God, and no true prophet of God would do that. So he cannot be just a normal man. Lastly we consider that he is God incarnate. That being the case, his claims would be true if he is what he says he is.

Jesus affirms his equality with the Father as having equal authority to work (do miracles of healing on the Sabbath for example) because in and of himself, he is God, and being God he has the authority to decide to do this.

"Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the Sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God" (John 5:18). There was no mistaking the force of Christ’s declaration. By saying "My Father... and I" He had done what, without the greatest impropriety, was impossible to any mere creature. He had done what Abraham, Moses, David, Daniel, never dreamed of doing. He had placed Himself on the same level with the Father. His traducers were quick to recognize that He had "made himself equal with God," and they were right. No other inference could fairly be drawn from His words. And mark it attentively, the Lord Jesus did not charge them with wresting His language and misrepresenting His meaning. He did not protest against their construction of His words. Instead of that He continued to press upon them His Divine claims, stating the truth with regard to His unique personality and presenting the evidence on which His claim rested. And thus did He vindicate Himself not only from the charge of Sabbath-violation in having healed by His Divine word a poor helpless sufferer on that day, but also of blasphemy, in making an assertion in which by obvious implication, was a claim to equality with God.

Christ’s claim to absolute equality with God only fanned the horrid flame of the enmity in those Jewish zealots—they "sought the more to kill him." A similar scene is presented to us at the close of John 8. Immediately after being told that the Lord Jesus said "Before Abraham was I am" (another formal avowal of His absolute Deity) we read, "Then took they up stones to cast at him" (verses 58, 59). So again in the tenth chapter we find that as soon as He had declared "I and Father are one" Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him" (verses 30, 31). Thus did the carnal mind of man continue to display its inveterate enmity against God.

"Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, Verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise" (John 5:19). This is a verse which has been a sore puzzle to many of the commentators, and one used frequently by the enemies of Christ who deny His Deity. Even some of those who have been regarded as the champions of orthodoxy have faltered badly. To them the words "The Son can do nothing of himself" seem to point to a blemish in His person. They affirm a limitation, and when misunderstood appear to call for a half apology. The only solution which seems to have occurred to these men who thus dishonor both the written and the incarnate Word, is that this statement must have reference to the humanity of Christ. But a moment’s reflection should show that such a conclusion is wide of the mark. The second half of this nineteenth verse must be studied and interpreted in the light of the first half.

It is to be noted that the verse opens by saying "Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, Verily, I say unto you, the Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do." What was it that He was replying to? Who was it that He was here "answering"? The previous verse quickly decides. He was replying to those who sought to kill Him; He was answering His enemies who were enraged because He had "made himself equal with God." In what follows, then, we have the Lord’s response to their implied charge of blasphemy. In verse 19 we have the second part of the vindication of His claim that He and the Father were one. Thus it will be seen that the words "The Son can do nothing of himself" respect His Deity and not His humanity, separately considered. Or, more accurately speaking, they concern the Divine glory of the Son of God incarnate.

"The Son can do nothing of himself but what he seeth the Father do." Does this mean that His ability was limited? or that His power was restricted? Do His words signify that when He "made himself of no reputation (R. V. emptied himself) and took upon him the form of a servant" (Phil. 2:7) that He was reduced to all the limitations of human nature? To all these questions we return an emphatic and dogmatic No. Instead of pointing to an imperfection, either in His person or power, they, rightly understood, only serve to bring out His peerless excellency. But here as everywhere else, Scripture must be interpreted by Scripture, and once we heed this rule, difficulties disappear like the mists before the sun.

It will be seen that in verse 30 we have a strictly parallel statement, and by noting what is added there the one in verse 19 is more easily understood. "The Son can do nothing of himself" of verse 19 is repeated in the "I can do nothing of myself" in verse 30, and then in the closing words of verse 30 we find that the Lord explains His meaning by giving as a reason—"Because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me."
The limitation is not because of any defect in His person (brought about by the incarnation) nor because of any limitation in His power (voluntary or imposed); it was solely a matter of will. "The Son can do nothing of himself," literally, "nothing out of himself," that is, "nothing" as proceeding from or originating with Himself. In other words, the force of what He said was this: ‘I cannot act independently of the Father.’ But was that a limitation which amounted to a defect? Indeed no; the very reverse. Do the words "God that cannot lie" (Titus 1:2) and "God cannot be tempted with evil" (James 1:13) point to a blemish in the Divine nature or character? Nay, verily, they affirm Divine perfections. It was so here in the words of Christ.

But may it not be that Christ is here speaking in view of His mediatorial position, as the servant of the Father? We do not think so, and that for three reasons. In the first place, John’s Gospel is not the one which emphasizes His servant-character; that is unfolded in Mark’s. In this Gospel it is His Deity, His Divine glory, which is prominent throughout. Therefore, some explanation for this verse must be found consonant with that fact. In the second place, our Lord was not here defending His mediatorship, His Divinely-appointed works; instead, He was replying to those who deemed Him guilty of blasphemy, because He had made Himself equal with God. Our third reason will be developed below.

"The Son can do nothing of himself." This we have attempted to show means, "the Son cannot act independently of the Father." And why could He not? Because in will He was absolutely one with the Father. If He were God the Son then His will must be in perfect unison with that of God the Father, otherwise, there would be two absolute but conflicting wills, which means that there would be two Gods, the one opposing the other; which in plainer language still, would be affirming that there were two Supreme Beings which is, of course, a flat contradiction of terms. It was just because the Lord Jesus was the Son of God, that His will was in fullest harmony with the will of the Father. Man can will independently of God, alienated from Him as he is. Even the angels which kept not their first estate, yea, one above them in rank, the "anointed cherub" himself could, and did say, "I will" (see Isaiah 14:13 and 14, five times repeated). But the Son of God could not, for He was not only very Man of very man but also very God of very God....

"The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise." Here is an assertion which none but a Divine person (in the most absolute sense of the term) could truthfully make. Because the Son can do nothing but what the Father does, so, on the other hand, "What things soever the Father doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise." Note well this word "likewise." Not only does He do what the Father does, but He does it as He does it, that is, in a manner comporting with the absolute perfections of their common Divine nature. But what is ever more striking is the all-inclusive "whatsoever." Not only does He perform His works with the same Divine power and excellency as the Father does His, but the Son also does all "whatsoever he (the Father) doeth." This is proof positive that He is speaking here not in His mediatorial capacity, as the servant, but in His essential character as one absolutely equal with God.

We cannot refrain from quoting here part of the most excellent comments of the late Dr. John Brown on this verse:—"All is of the Father—all is by the Son. Did the Father create the universe? So did the Son. Does the Father uphold the universe? So does the Son. Does the Father govern the universe? So does the Son. Is the Father the Savior of the world? So is the Son. Surely the Jews did not err when they concluded that our Lord made Himself ‘equal with God.’ Surely He who is so intimately connected with God that He does what God does, does all God does, does all in the same manner in which God does it; surely such a person cannot but be equal with God." To this we would add but one word: Scripture also reveals that in the future, too, the will of the Father and of the Son will act in perfect unison, for, in the last chapter of the Bible we read that the throne of Deity on the new earth will be "the throne of God and of the lamb" (Rev. 22:1)....  Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 18.

 

John 10:30-31

John 10:30 I and my Father are one.
John 10:31 Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him.

What the Jews understood in Jesus' words was that Jesus was claiming equality with God the Father, Jehovah, God the Almighty, however you want to designate the only True God. They understood this as being blasphemy, and their reaction was to stone Jesus.

John 10:32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?
John 10:33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.

His Relation to God. This surprising discovery of the content of our Lord's moral consciousness leads us to dare to ask a most crucial question: Did the consciousness of Jesus, in carrying out his mission of redemption, affirm any peculiar relation to God? If so, what was that relation?

13. Jesus regards himself as alone able to understand God the Father and to reveal him.

"All things have been delivered unto me of my Father: and no one knoweth the Son, save the Father; neither doth any know the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son willeth to reveal him " (Saint Matt. 11.27).

14. Jesus regards himself as the one and only way unto God the Father. "Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one cometh unto the Father, but by me' (Saint John 14.6).

15. Jesus regards himself as so essentially one with the Father (*ego kai ho pater hen esmen*) that having seen Jesus one hath seen the Father. "Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and dost thou not know me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; how sayest thou, Show us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I say unto you I speak not from myself: but the Father abiding in me doeth his works" (Saint John 14.9, 10; 10.25-33). The Ritschlian view that Christ was conscious of merely an ethical union with God, an agreement with God in moral purpose, seems to me to be superficial even as isolated exegesis. But we cannot rest in any isolated exegesis, the passage must be treated in harmony with all the other claims of Jesus. So treated, it is evident that Jesus held in consciousness such a fundamental relation to God the Father as to be able to be, in the redemptive work, a complete equivalent of the Father's authority and nature. Jesus does not regard himself as a mere delegate from God, but as the actual presence of God to accomplish their salvation.

16. In Christ's estimate the Holy Spirit is peculiarly related both to our Lord's redemptive ministry and to our Lord himself. Not only does the Holy Spirit wait for the end of that ministry, but he is to be sent by Jesus himself. "Nevertheless I tell you the truth: It is expedient for you that I go away; for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I go, I will send him unto you. And he, when he is come, will convict the world in respect of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment" (Saint John 16:7; read the entire chapter). Godet's comment here is so penetrating that I will quote it: "His departure was the condition of his restoration to his divine state, and this would enable him to send the Holy Spirit. It is the same idea which we meet with in John 7:39: 'The Spirit was not yet; because Jesus was not yet glorified.' That Jesus might send the Spirit, he must possess him as his own personal life, and that as man, since it is to men that he is to impart him."

This, though, is deeper than we now need to go. What I wish to emphasize is that Jesus Christ, while on the earth, working out his redemptive plan, was conscious of being the condition of the redemptional activity of the Holy Spirit and also of being the personal authority to start that activity.  Olin Alfred Curtis (1850-1918) - The Christian Faith chapter 16 (1905)

32.03.02.04 Jesus' Submission to God the Father

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32.03.03 The Divine Names of Jesus Christ

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When we consider the special names and titles used of Jesus in relationship to his being and ministry, we cannot but help understand that we are talking about the very God. Jesus is the God who has always existed through all of eternity past, the present, and will exist for all of eternity future.

Divine Names

The first line of proof of the absolute Deity of our Lord Jesus is that many names and titles clearly implying Deity are used of Jesus Christ in the Bible, some of them over and over again, the total number of passages reaching far into the hundreds. Of course, I can only give you a few illustrations at this time. Turn with me first of all to Revelation 1:17, "And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am
the first and the last." The text shows clearly that our Lord Jesus was the speaker, and here our Lord Jesus distinctly calls Himself "The First and the Last." Now this, beyond a question, is a Divine name, for in Isaiah 44:6 we read, "Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God." In Revelation 22:12,13, our Lord Jesus says that He is the Alpha and Omega. His words are, "And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last." Now in this same book in the first chapter and the eighth verse the Lord God declared that He is the Alpha and the Omega. His words are, "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty." In I Corinthians 2:8, the apostle Paul speaks of our crucified Lord Jesus as "The Lord of glory." His exact words are, "Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory." There can be no question that "The Lord of glory" is Jehovah God, for we read in Psalm 24:8-10, "Who is this King of glory? The LORD strong and mighty, the LORD mighty in battle. Lift up your heads, O ye gates; even lift them up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in. Who is this King of glory? The LORD of hosts, he is the King of glory. Selah." And we are told in the passage already referred to that our crucified Lord Jesus was the King of glory; therefore, He must be Jehovah.

In John 20:28 Thomas addressed the Lord Jesus as his Lord and his God: "And Thomas answered and said unto him,
My Lord and my God." Unitarians have endeavored to get around the force of this utterance made by Thomas by saying that Thomas was excited and that he was not addressing the Lord Jesus, but was saying "my Lord and my God" as an ejaculation of astonishment, just the way that profane people sometimes use these exclamations today. But this interpretation is impossible and shows to what desperate straits the Unitarians are driven, for Jesus Himself commended Thomas for seeing it and saying it. Our Lord Jesus' words immediately following those of Thomas are, "Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed" (John 20:29).

In Titus 2:13 our Lord Jesus is spoken of as our "
great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ." In Romans 9:5 Paul tells us that "Christ came, who is over all, God blessed forever." The Unitarians have made desperate efforts to overcome the force of these words, but the only fair translation and interpretation of these words are found in our Authorized Version. There can be no honest doubt to one who goes to the Bible to find out what it actually teaches, and not to read his own thought into it, that Jesus is spoken of by various names and titles that beyond a question imply deity, and that He in so many words is called God. In Hebrews 1:8 it is said in so many words, of the Son, "But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom." If we should go no further it is evidently the clear and often repeated teaching of the Bible that Jesus is really God.
  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

32.03.03.01 The Messiah is God

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Rom 9:5 Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

"God blessed for ever" is a phrase that grammatically modifies Christ. Christ, the Messiah, is God blessed for ever. Who is the Messiah? God the Father or Jesus?

32.03.03.02 The Word (Logos) of God

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John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

The affirmations of this verse is very important. His existence as "the Word of God" is related to his being God incarnate (compare with John 1:14, 18). Language exists to communicate meaning, and Jesus is the Word, or a Message, in the sense that he is the communication of God to humanity. It is very important to understand his being as a communication, a Word. This communication from God to mankind is a communication of what and who God is. Because of this point, it is a demand upon "the Word of God" to be completely and fully God. This we find in Col 2:9 which says that the "in him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily."

[ISBE] Word wûrd: The commonest term in the Old Testament for “word” is דבר, dābhār (also “matter” “thing”); in the New Testament λόγος, lógos (“reason,” “discourse,” “speech”); but also frequently ῥῆμα, rhḗma. Rhēma is a “word” in itself considered; logos is a spoken word, with reference generally to that which is in the speaker's mind. Some of the chief applications of the terms may thus be exhibited:

(1) We have the word of Yahweh (or God; see below) (a) as the revelation to the patriarch, prophet, or inspired person (Gen 15:1; Exo 20:1; Num 22:38, etc.); (b) as spoken forth by the prophet (Exo 4:30; Exo 34:1; 2Ki 7:1; Isa 1:10, etc.).

(2) The word is often a commandment, sometimes equivalent to “the Law” (Exo 32:28; Num 20:24; Deut 6:6; Psa 105:8; Psa 119:11, Psa 119:17; Isa 66:2, etc.).

(3) As a promise and ground of hope (Psa 119:25, Psa 119:28, Psa 119:38, etc.; Psa 130:5, etc.).

(4) As creative, upholding, and preserving (Psa 33:6; compare Gen 1:3 ff; Psa 147:15, Psa 147:18; Heb 1:3; Heb 11:3; 2Pe 3:5, 2Pe 3:7).

(5) As personified (in Apocrypha, The Wisdom of Solomon 18:15; Ecclesiasticus 1:5, the Revised Version margin “omitted by the best authorities”).

(6) As personal (John 1:1). Logos in Philo and Greek-Jewish philosophy meant both reason or thought and its utterance, “the whole contents of the divine world of thought resting in the Noús of God, synonymous with the inner life of God Himself and corresponding to the logos endiáthetos of the human soul; on the other hand, it is the externalizing of this as revelation corresponding to the logos prophorikós in which man's thought finds expression (Schultz). Compare also the references to Creation by “the word of God” and its personifications; see LOGOS; incarnated in Jesus Christ (John 1:14; 1Jo 1:1, 1Jo 1:2; Rev 19:13, “His name is called, The Word of God,” Ho Lógos toú Theoú). See PERSON OF CHRIST.

(7) Cannot be broken, endureth forever (2Ki 10:10; Psa 119:89; Isa 40:8, etc.).

(8) A designation of the gospel of Christ: sometimes simply “the word”; with Jesus “the word of the Kingdom” (Mat 13:19; Mark 2:2; Acts 4:4, Acts 4:29, Acts 4:31, etc.). In John's Gospel Jesus frequently speaks of His “word” and “works” as containing the divine revelation and requirements made through Him, which men are asked to believe in, cherish and obey (John 5:24; John 6:63, John 6:68, etc.); “the words of God” (John 3:34; John 8:47; John 14:10; John 17:8, John 17:14, etc.); His “word” (logos and rhēma) is to be distinguished from laliá, speech (compare Mat 26:73; Mar 14:70), translated “saying,” John 4:42 (John 4:41, “Many more believed because of his own word” (logos); John 4:42, “not because of thy saying” (lalia), the Revised Version (British and American) “speaking”); in the only other occurrence of lalia in this Gospel (John 8:43) Jesus uses it to distinguish the outward expression from the inner meaning, “Why do ye not understand my speech?” (lalia), “Even because ye cannot hear my word” (logos).

(9) “Words” are distinguished from “power” (1Co 4:20; 1Th 1:5); are contrasted with “deed” (Mal 2:17; 1Co 4:20; 1Jo 3:18).

(10) Paul refers to “unspeakable words” (árrhēta rhḗmata) which he heard in Paradise (2Co 12:4), and to “words (logoi)...which the Spirit teacheth” (1Co 2:13).

 For “word” the Revised Version (British and American) has “commandment” (Num 4:45, etc.); for “words,” “things” (John 7:9; John 8:30; John 9:22, John 9:40; John 17:1), “sayings” (John 10:21; John 12:47, John 12:48); for “enticing words,” “persuasiveness of speech” (Col 2:4); conversely, “word” for “commandment” (Num 24:13; Num 27:14; Jos 8:8, etc.), with numerous other changes. [ISBE]

Bishop Lightfoot in his commentary on Colossians says

As the idea of the Logos underlies the whole of this passage, though the term itself does not appear, a few words explanatory of this term will be necessary by way of preface. The word logos then, denoting both "reason" and "speech," was a philosophical term adopted by Alexandrian Judaism before St. Paul wrote, to express the manifestation of the Unseen God, the Absolute Being, in the creation and government of the World. It included all modes by which God makes Himself known to man. As His reason, it denoted His purpose or design; as His speech, it implied His revelation. Whether this logos was conceived merely as the divine energy personified, or whether the conception took a more concrete form, I need not stop now to enquire; but I hope to give a fuller account of the matter in a later volume. It is sufficient for the understanding of what follows to say that Christian teachers, when they adopted this term, exalted and fixed its meaning by attaching to it two precise and definite ideas: (1) "The Word is a Divine Person," o logos hn pros ton theon kai theon hn o logos; and (2) "The Word became incarnate in Jesus Christ," o logos sarx egeneto. It is obvious that these two propositions must have altered materially the significance of all the subordinate terms connected with the idea of the logos; and that therefore their use in Alexandrian writers, such as Philo, cannot be taken to define, though it may be brought to illustrate, their meaning in St. Paul and St. John. With these cautions the Alexandrian phraseology, as a providential preparation for the teaching of the Gospel, will afford important aid in the understanding of the Apostolic writings. - 8th ed. pp141-142.

See also 32.03.06.01 Jesus eternally exists with God, John 1:1

32.03.03.03 The Only Begotten (John 1:14, 18)

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R. Govett in his Exposition of the Gospel of St. John says

This glory was of "the Only-begotten from the Father." These words, then, refute the ideas of some of "the men of intelligence," that there were many like emanations proceeding from God. No! He is the Only begotten. He is related to the Father, as an only son is to an earthly father. He is "begotten, not made," partaker in full of His Father's Godhead. "But if so, do you not introduce another difficulty? If He is the begotten Son of God, proceeding from the Father, do you not imply, that He is not eternal, but had a beginning, after the Father?" At this point two errors may seek to enter, "Jesus Christ is God; therefore not a Son of God." Then arises Tritheism, or the doctrine of three Gods. Or, "Jesus Christ is Son --therefore He is not God." Then Arianism comes in. We testify on the contrary, then, with Scripture, that Jesus Christ is the Eternal Son of God, and is God. "Eternal decrees" contains as great a difficult as "Eternal Son." Eternity introduces difficulties beyond our plumb-line. Jesus is "the Only-begotten" in relation to the many figurative "sons of God." Angels are sons of God by creation; but in the sense in which Christ is so, they are not sons at all. He stands alone. In another sense those begotten anew of the Spirit become adopted Sons of God. But they begin to be so, after having become men. Christ was Son from all eternity. Still further, to set the matter clearly, the Spirit of God adds-- "Only-begotten from the Father," as distinct from Him eternally, and sent forth from the Father. Jesus uses this phrase in reference to Himself (John 3:16-18). The word is then to be taken in the loftiest sense of which it is capable; for the giving of Jesus Christ is alleged to be the very greatest gift which is possible. The higher the person of Christ, the greater the glory of God in the gift of His Son. I, 23-24.

W.R. Dronsfield (Brethren)

Let us not lessen the force of the word "Only Begotten" by saying that it might just be translated "Only" or that it means simply unique or uniquely precious. It means far more than that. It means that He is the only Son according to the Divine Essence. To justify this lessening of the force of the word "Only Begotten", the case of Isaac is put forward who is called Abraham's only begotten son although there were other sons. However, in God's eyes, Isaac was the only son. Abraham said, "O that Ishmael might live before Thee!" but Ishmael was not recognised by God, the covenant was not to be with him (Genesis 17: 18-19). On the other hand it has been stated, that because of the Septuagint use of the word "only begotten" for the Hebrew "only one" (jachid), that "only" is all that is meant by it. But the Septuagint is often an inaccurate translation and certainly cannot be cited as a greater authority than the New Testament itself. Those who have come to the defence of Eternal Sonship by denying that the real meaning of the Greek word monogenes is "only begotten", have actually obscured the issue.

But what then are we to say about all the other sons? Are there not many sons brought to glory? (Hebrews 2: 10). Are we not sons? (Galatians 4: 6). Are we not begotten of God? (1 John 5: 1, 18). Are not the angels called sons of God? (Job 1: 6/38: 7).

It is true that we are brought into sonship by the grace of God. We have been begotten of God as regards the new nature, when we were born again by the Word and the Spirit. This is the divine nature (1 Peter 1: 4). It is the nature of God morally — God's true nature from the moral standpoint, but it is not sonship according to essence. That is, we do not partake of Deity and thus become omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent, etc. Only the Son has Sonship according to essence. From the moral aspect He is the Firstborn among many brethren, but from the point of view of Divine Essence He is the Only Begotten with no brethren.
  Dronsfield, W.R.  - Eternal Son of the Father, Chapter 2

32.03.03.04 The Image (Col 1:15)

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Image is not just a likeness, but refers to a prototype, and the image is revealed reality of that prototype.

Dean Alford says

... the image of the invisible God (the adjunct invisible is of the utmost weight to the understanding of the expression. The same fact being the foundation of the whole as in Phil 2:6ff, that the Son subsisted in the form of God, that side of the fact is brought out here, which points to His being the visible manifestation of that in God which is invisible: the word of the eternal silence, the shining forth of the glory which no creature can bear, the expressed mark of that Person which is incommunicably God's; in one word, the declarer of the Father, whom none hath seen. So that while the epithet invisible includes in it not only the invisibility, but the incommunicability of God, the term image also must not be restricted to Christ corporeally visible in the Incarnation, but understood of Him as the manifestation of God in His whole Person and work-- pre-existent and incarnate. It is obvious, that in this expression, the Apostle approaches very near to the Alexandrian doctrine of the Logos or Word: how near, may be seen by an extract from Philo: "As they who cannot look upon the sun, behold the sunshine opposite to him as himself, and the changing phases of the moon as being Himself." St Paul is, in fact, as St. John afterwards did, adopting the language of that lore as far as it represented divine truth, and rescuing it from being used in the service of error.-- New Testament for English Readers, New Ed. II, 446.

32.03.03.05 The Exact Image (Heb 1:3) (xarakthr) Greek

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The Greek word for "Exact Image" in Hebrews 1:3 is xarakthr, or in English letter substitution, "charakter".

M.R. Vincent states

"Here the essential being of God is conceived as setting its distinctive stamp upon Christ, coming into definite and characteristic expression in his person, so that the Son bears the exact impress of the divine nature and character" (Word Studies in the New Testament IV, 383).

 

32.03.03.06 The First Begotten or First Born (prwtotokos)

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Sperry Chafer says of this term...

This title --sometimes translated First-born-- indicates that Christ is First-Born, the elder in relation to all creation; not the first created thing, but the antecedent to all things as well as the cause of them (cf. Col 1:16). Of this title Dr. John F. Walvoord writes, "This term is used twice in the New Testament without referring to Christ (Heb 11:28; 12:23), and seven times as His title. An examination of these references will reveal a threefold use: (a) Before all creation (Rom 8:29; Col 1:15). As the 'firstborn of every creature' (Col 1:15), the title is obviously used of Christ as existing before all creation, hence, eternally self-existent. (b) Firstborn of Mary (Mat 1:25; Luke 2:7; Heb 1:6). Here the reference is plainly to the fact that Christ was the first child born to Mary, a usage in contrast to that speaking of His eternal sonship. The term is used, then, of His preincarnate Person, and also of His incarnate Person. (c) Firstborn by Resurrection (Col 1:18; Rev 1:5). The meaning here is that Christ is the first to be raised from the dead in resurrection life, hence, 'the firstborn from the dead' (Col 1:18). In relation to the eternity of Christ, this title is another proof that Christ is the self-existent, uncreated God spoken of in Romans 9:29; Colossians 1:15; and that in view of His eternal Person, He also has the honor of being the first to be raised from the dead in resurrection life" (Outline of Christology, unpublished ms., pp 5-6). Lewis Sperry Chafer, Systematic Theology, Vol 5, pages 11-12.

32.03.03.07 The Primary Designation of "God".

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The term "God" is in a very few occasions used of an inferior deity, but in the vast majority of its uses it usually refers to the very God, Deity. When this title is applied to Jesus Christ, it cannot possibly be referring to Christ as an inferior god because whenever the Bible uses this term of an inferior God, it is always a counter to the True Very God, and refers to a false god which is condemned. Something men make "a god" who the True God refuses to acknowledge or give validity to as God and worthy of worship and honor. Yet in the case of Jesus Christ, this is exactly the opposite. In Heb 1:6-8 we find God the Father demanding the angels of heaven to worship the Son.

Part of the idea of the true and very God is that this God is all powerful, has always existed, and is worthy of worship and honor. All of these qualities we see given or conceded to Christ. The OT uses the concept of the true and very God as a plurality within a unity. See 30.03 The Trinity. From the plural of God (Elohim) in Genesis 1, "Let us make man in our own image" to Proverbs 8 of Wisdom being eternal, and being beside God from eternity past, to the Word of John 1 being God, and being with God, we find this anomaly to our thinking that it is impossible for God to be one, and yet He is more than one.

Lewis Sperry Chafer says...

The use of this designation (God) for Christ begins in the Old Testament and continues throughout the New. Abundant evidence may be cited which makes Isa 40:3 turn out to be an anticipation of Christ's first-advent ministry as heralded by John. The passage reads, "The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God." In this Scripture the Holy Spirit asserts that the Messiah, or Christ, is both Jehovah and Elohim. In the same manner the same prophet by inspiration writes of Christ: "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this." (Isa 9:6-7). Christ alone is the member of the Godhead of whom it could be said that He would be born and that He would sit on David's throne. So, also, Isaiah declares the coming One to be Immanuel and identifies Him as One who would be born of a virgin (Isa 7:14). Matthew interprets the name Immanuel as being "God with us" (Mat 1:23). The significance of this title is more than that God is present with His people; it is that, by the incarnation, God has become one of the human family. Luke reports the angel as saying of Christ that John would turn many to the Lord their God (Luke 1:16); and this is to turn them to Messiah. Thus, also, over against all the revelation relative to Christ's humanity which the New Testament sets forth is the disclosure in the same Testament of the truth of His absolute Deity, made by the repeated application to Him of the name God. As seen above, the Apostle John, when introducing Christ as the subject of his Gospel, states that the Logos is God, and at once adds that it is this same Logos (who is God) who created all things. When Thomas beheld the Savior's wounds he said, "My Lord and my God" (John 20:28). Such an utterance, were it untrue, would be idolatry and reprehensible sin; yet Christ did not reprove Thomas, but rather states that, by so much, Thomas has come to believe that which is true of Him. As certainly as it is Christ who is come again, so certainly He bears the title of Great God and our Savior (Titus 2:13). It was God who shed his blood to purchase the Church (cf Acts 20:28). When Psalm 45:6 is quoted in Hebrews-- clearly referring to Christ-- the message states, "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever." It is thus in the most express terms that Christ is said to be God, and reason asserts that, if He be God, He existed from all eternity. He is the "True God," the "God Blessed for ever," and "God who is over all." Lewis Sperry Chafer, Systematic Theology, Vol 5, pages 12-13
 

32.03.03.08 God incarnate, "God with us"

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Mat 1:23 Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.
Isa 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.

The most straightforward proof of Jesus' Deity is the simple fact that Holy Scripture refers to Jesus' coming to earth with this concept, "God with us".

1Ti 3:16 And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.

This early primitive Christian saying or song directly attributes God manifest in the flesh to Jesus.

Zec 12:6 In that day will I make the governors of Judah like an hearth of fire among the wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf; and they shall devour all the people round about, on the right hand and on the left: and Jerusalem shall be inhabited again in her own place, even in Jerusalem.
Zec 12:7 The LORD also shall save the tents of Judah first, that the glory of the house of David and the glory of the inhabitants of Jerusalem do not magnify themselves against Judah.
Zec 12:8 In that day shall the LORD defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and he that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David; and the house of David shall be as God, as the angel of the LORD before them.
Zec 12:9 And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem.
Zec 12:10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.
Zec 12:11 In that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon.

This passage obviously speaks of God in verses 7-8. God (Jehovah) is speaking in the passage, and in verse 10, God comments that "they shall look upon me whom they have pierced".

Rev 1:5 And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,
Rev 1:6 And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
Rev 1:7 Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.

First notice that it is Jesus who is doing the greeting here. The comment in verse 6 is that Jesus has made us kings and priests "unto God and his Father". The phrase "God and his Father" is clearly a reference to Jesus and God the Father. But the reference to Jesus is given as "God".

32.03.03.09 The Good Shepherd

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One of the key identifications of Jesus is in John 10, when he identifies himself as the Good Shepherd.

Joh 10:11 I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.
Joh 10:12 But he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth: and the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep.
Joh 10:13 The hireling fleeth, because he is an hireling, and careth not for the sheep.
Joh 10:14 I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine.
Matthew 25:31-32 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: 32 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats:

But this concept is clearly linked to Jehovah God in the Old Testament.

Psa 23:1 The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.
Psa 80:1 Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, thou that leadest Joseph like a flock; thou that dwellest between the cherubims, shine forth.
Psa 80:2 Before Ephraim and Benjamin and Manasseh stir up thy strength, and come and save us.
Psa 80:3 Turn us again, O God, and cause thy face to shine; and we shall be saved.
Psa 80:4 O LORD God of hosts, how long wilt thou be angry against the prayer of thy people?

Ezekiel 34:11 For thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I, even I, will both search my sheep, and seek them out.
Eze 34:12 As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep that are scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day.

32.03.03.10 Jesus is the Lord (Jehovah), the "I AM"

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Exo 3:13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them?
Exo 3:14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.
Exo 3:15 And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.

One of the key links in distinguishing between who is God, and who is somebody else other than God is the terms used for God. In this consideration there are two very important names of God that identify "the very God of very God". This is the great "I AM" (Exo 3:14), and the LORD (Jehovah - in the KJV this, LORD-Jehovah, is different from Adonai which is lowercase after the "L", Lord). It should be understood that "Jehovah" is the consonants of the Hebrew word JHWH which has lost the vowel pointing, and its basic meaning is also lost. Some Hebrew scholars indicate that the word JHWH comes from the verb of being, "I AM".

Therefore any Bible student will quickly identify a claim to be the "I AM" or to be Jehovah Lord as being a claim to Deity.

Psa 110:1 <A Psalm of David.> The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
Mat 22:41 While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them,
Mat 22:42 Saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The Son of David.
Mat 22:43 He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying,
Mat 22:44 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool?
John 8:58 Jesus said to them, Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.

Jesus used Psa 110:1 to refer to himself, when in the OT this verse clearly refers to Jehovah.

For more links between Jehovah and Jesus, see Jehovah, the Lord God, is the Creator; where the links between Jehovah as Creator, and Jesus as Creator are established.

32.03.03.11 Lord of Lords

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Deuteronomy 10:17 For the LORD your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome, who shows no partiality nor takes a bribe.
Psalms 136:1-4 O give thanks unto the LORD; for he is good: for his mercy endureth for ever. 2 O give thanks unto the God of gods: for his mercy endureth for ever. 3 O give thanks to the Lord of lords: for his mercy endureth for ever. 4 To him who alone doeth great wonders: for his mercy endureth for ever.

Revelation 17:14 "These will make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, for He is Lord of lords and King of kings; and those who are with Him are called, chosen, and faithful.

32.03.03.12 The Holy One

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The term "Holy One" does not specifically refer to the Holy Spirit, but to the one whom God has made holy, or separate from the commonness of Creation.

Psalms 89:18 For the LORD is our defence; and the Holy One of Israel is our king.
Isa 17:7 At that day shall a man look to his Maker, and his eyes shall have respect to the Holy One of Israel.
Isaiah 48:17 Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, The Holy One of Israel: "I am the LORD your God, Who teaches you to profit, Who leads you by the way you should go.
Isaiah 43:15 I am the LORD, your Holy One, the creator of Israel, your King.
Isaiah 10:20 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the remnant of Israel, and such as are escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no more again stay upon him that smote them; but shall stay upon the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, in truth.
Isaiah 17:7 At that day shall a man look to his Maker, and his eyes shall have respect to the Holy One of Israel.
Isaiah 29:19 The meek also shall increase their joy in the LORD, and the poor among men shall rejoice in the Holy One of Israel.

Mark 1:24 Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.
Acts 2:27 Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.
Acts 3:14-15 "But you denied the Holy One and the Just, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you, 15 "and killed the Prince of life, whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.

32.03.03.13 The Husband

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God Jeremiah 3:14 Turn, O backsliding children, saith the LORD; for I am married unto you: and I will take you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will bring you to Zion:
Jeremiah 3:20 Surely as a wife treacherously departeth from her husband, so have ye dealt treacherously with me, O house of Israel, saith the LORD.
Jeremiah 31:32 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the LORD:
Isaiah 54:5 For thy Maker is thine husband; the LORD of hosts is his name; and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel; The God of the whole earth shall he be called.

Jesus  

Romans 7:4 Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are become dead to the law by the body of Christ; that ye should be married to another, even to him who is raised from the dead, that we should bring forth fruit unto God.
2 Corinthians 11:2 For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.
Ephesians 5:22-33
Revelation 21:9 And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb's wife.

32.03.03.14 The Rock

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God Deuteronomy 32:3-4 Because I will publish the name of the LORD: ascribe ye greatness unto our God. 4 He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.
1 Samuel 2:2 There is none holy as the LORD: for there is none beside thee: neither is there any rock like our God.
2 Samuel 22:2 And he said, The LORD is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer;
2 Samuel 22:32 For who is God, save the LORD? and who is a rock, save our God?
Psalms 28:1 A Psalm of David. Unto thee will I cry, O LORD my rock; be not silent to me: lest, if thou be silent to me, I become like them that go down into the pit.
Psalms 42:9 I will say unto God my rock, Why hast thou forgotten me? why go I mourning because of the oppression of the enemy?
Psalms 62:1-2 To the chief Musician, to Jeduthun, A Psalm of David. Truly my soul waiteth upon God: from him cometh my salvation. 2 He only is my rock and my salvation; he is my defence; I shall not be greatly moved.
Psalms 62:6-7 He only is my rock and my salvation: he is my defence; I shall not be moved. 7 In God is my salvation and my glory: the rock of my strength, and my refuge, is in God.

Jesus

Matthew 16:18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.
Romans 9:33 As it is written, Behold, I lay in Sion a stumblingstone and rock of offence: and whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.
1 Corinthians 10:4 And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.

32.03.03.14 The True God

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God Jeremiah 10:10 But the LORD is the true God, he is the living God, and an everlasting king: at his wrath the earth shall tremble, and the nations shall not be able to abide his indignation.
John 17:3 And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.

Jesus

1 John 5:20 And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.

 

32.03.04 The Divine Offices of Jesus Christ

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Divine Offices

But we do not need to rest the case here. There is a third unanswerable line of proof that Jesus Christ is God, namely, all the distinctively Divine offices are predicated of Jesus Christ. There are seven distinctively Divine offices. That is to say, there are seven things that God alone can do, and each one of these seven distinctively Divine offices is ascribed to Jesus Christ. The seven distinctively Divine offices are: Creation, Preservation, Forgiveness of Sin, the Raising of the Dead, the Transformation of Bodies, Judgment and the Bestowal of Eternal Life, and each of these is ascribed to Jesus Christ.

Creation is ascribed to Him. In Hebrews 1:10 these words are spoken of our Lord: "And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands." The context clearly shows that the Lord addressed is the Lord Jesus. In John 1:3 we are told that "All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made." Preservation of the universe and of everything is also ascribed to Him in Hebrews 1:3 where it is said of the Lord Jesus, "Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person [God's], and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high."

The forgiveness of sin is ascribed to Him. He Himself says in Mark 2:5-10 when His power to forgive sins was questioned, because that was recognized as a Divine power, "But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins."

The future raising of the dead is distinctly ascribed to him in John 6:39,44, "And this is the Father's will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day. No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day."

The transformation of our bodies is ascribed to Him in Philippians 3:21. In 2 Timothy 4:1 judgment is ascribed to Him. We are told that He shall "judge the quick and the dead." Jesus Himself declared that He would be the judge of all mankind and emphasized the fact of the Divine character of that office. In John 5:22,23 He said, "For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son: That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father." The bestowal of eternal life is ascribed to Him time and time again. In John 10:28 He Himself says, "And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand," and in John 17:1,2, He says, "Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee: As thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him." Here then, we have the seven distinctively Divine offices all predicated of Jesus Christ. This alone would prove that He is God, and we might rest the case here, but there are still other proofs of His absolute Deity.
  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

32.03.04.01 Jesus is Eternal, the everlasting, the first and the last, Alpha and Omega

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See also the Divine Attributes 32.03.05.04 Jesus is Eternal

All of these terms refer to the attribute of deity that Jesus and God both have, that they have no beginning and no end. The concepts of "first and last", and "Alpha and Omega" are setting the absolute end posts by which everything else must fit into this "context". For example, if we talk about the letters of the English alphabet, we can refer to the whole as "A through Z", or in other words, every letter has to find its place within the context of A-Z, because this sets the limits for the alphabet. Nothing (no letter of the Alphabet) can exist outside of that context. In this sense we refer to the eternality of God.

We need to understand that there are only so many possible "players" in the scene of Jesus Christ. He is one of the following:

(1) God a spirit without a physical body (his body was an illusion)
(2) God incarnate,
(3) a man (not God-man),
(4) he is an angel.
(5) he is something between these (God incarnate is combination of 1. and number 3) or none of the above.

Since on many occasions it talks of Christ's body, and people actually touched him, he is not just a spirit (option number 1). If Jesus is a normal man (opt number 3), then his existence began actually in his conception. (We will assume that every human being has always existed in the mind of God from eternity past, but we talk of beginning existence for a human in the moment of conception.) His statement in John 8:58 that he existed before Abraham existed would show that he is not a normal average man. Likewise Jesus is not just a normal angelic (heavenly) being. His humanity would be something that we never see an angel being born of a human being.

32.03.04.01A Eternality of Jesus God

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The final option (number 5) is a possibility, but Scripture does not present Jesus as a being different from what we have in God incarnate.

Heb 13:8 Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever. (Compare with Mal 3:6 where "Lord" is Jehovah; James 1:7)

The fact that Jesus is eternally the same in his essence is something that no creature can ever claim. God is given the attribute of eternal "sameness" (Heb 1:12; Ps 102:27; Isa 41:4), which would mean in his essence and nature; he never changes; he always exists. Our best and most probably option, that which agrees most clearly with Scripture is that Jesus is God incarnate. 1Tim 3:16 describes Jesus as "God was manifest in the flesh". You cannot get clearer than that. This is God incarnate.

32.03.04.01B Jesus God is the Everlasting

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Isa 41:4 Who hath wrought and done it, calling the generations from the beginning? I the LORD, the first, and with the last; I am he.
Isa 44:6 Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.

This passage indicates the eternality of the one and True God. The phrase which is used to indicate this eternal position of God is "I am the first and I am the last". Rev 1:8, 11 identifies God Almighty as being the first and the last, the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end.

Rev 10:6 And sware by him that liveth for ever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth, and the things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are therein, that there should be time no longer

John 8:58 Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.

Mic 5:2 But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.

Psa 93:1 The LORD reigneth, he is clothed with majesty; the LORD is clothed with strength, wherewith he hath girded himself: the world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved.
Psa 93:2 Thy throne is established of old: thou art from everlasting.

Isa 63:16 Doubtless thou art our father, though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not: thou, O LORD, art our father, our redeemer; thy name is from everlasting.

The phrase "from everlasting" is a direct reference to God Almighty.

32.03.04.01C Jesus God is the First and the Last

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God Isaiah 44:6 Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.
Revelation 21:6-7 And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely. 7 He that overcometh shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son.

Jesus

Revelation 1:10-18 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet, 11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea. 12 And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks; 13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. 14 His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire; 15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters. 16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength. 17 And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last: 18 I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
Revelation 2:8 And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;

32.03.04.01D Jesus God is the the Alpha and Omega

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32.03.04.02 Jesus is Creator

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Definition: "Create" - This means the making of something from nothing (ex nihilo). God alone makes material things out of nothing.

The issue of Jesus' Deity (full divinity, being equal with God the Father and God the Spirit) is important because some groups steal this divinity from Christ, making him something lower than full God. Here we need to understand that worship is directed exclusively to God our Creator, and Jesus is our Creator. Logically the only situation that can possibly reconcile this and the prohibit against worshipping anything other than God is that Jesus is fully God.

Mat 4:9 And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.
Mat 4:10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

The Jehovah's Witnesses for example claim that God (Jehovah) created first Jesus, and then gave Jesus the task of creating everything else in the creation. When we see the extensive evidence (below) that God Jehovah is overwhelmingly the one referred to as He who created or made the heavens and the earth, this false heretic declaration of the Jehovah's Witnesses reveals it evil and false nature.

Note: The Holy Spirit is also mentioned as Creator or at least taking part in the creation of the world, and we would assume that the entire Trinity participated in the acts of Creation, and not just Jesus, even though clearly Jesus is the Creator. The identifying of God the Father is very difficult because in the Old Testament, we would presume many of the mentions of LORD (Jehovah) and God were actually God the Father, but it is not so clearly identified as such. Our point here is clearly the Creator is not an angelic being, nor an inferior god being lesser than the Very True God. See 31.17 Holy Spirit in Creation

32.03.04.02A Deu 4.32

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Deu 4:32 For ask now of the days that are past, which were before thee, since the day that God created man upon the earth, and ask from the one side of heaven unto the other, whether there hath been any such thing as this great thing is, or hath been heard like it?

Note that in Deu 4:32, God proposes that there has never been such a work done as Creation. Creation is a work that is singular in history. The importance of this work of Creation is so important that God Himself is the only one who can be credited with having done it. Never is creation attributed to being the work of a creature, but always it is the work of God Himself.

32.03.04.02B Worship is directed to our Creator Psa 95:3-6

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The reason why it is so important that we establish Jesus as our Creator and God is because we are obligated to worship our Creator. We should (are commanded by God) to worship Jesus.

Psa 95:3 For the LORD[Jehovah] is a great God, and a great King above all gods.
Psa 95:4 In his hand are the deep places of the earth: the strength of the hills is his also.
Psa 95:5 The sea is his, and he made it: and his hands formed the dry land.
Psa 95:6 O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the LORD our maker.
Psa 95:7 For he is our God; and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand....

In the Bible, God identifies Himself as our Creator, and the Creator of all the universe. This element or position of God in being "our Creator" means that we should worship Him because he is our God, our Creator, our Maker, our Owner. See discussion on Worship.

God Exodus 34:14 '(for you shall worship no other god, for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God),
Deuteronomy 30:16-17 "in that I command you today to love the LORD your God, to walk in His ways, and to keep His commandments, His statutes, and His judgments, that you may live and multiply; and the LORD your God will bless you in the land which you go to possess. 17 "But if your heart turns away so that you do not hear, and are drawn away, and worship other gods and serve them,
2 Chronicles 7:19 "But if you turn away and forsake My statutes and My commandments which I have set before you, and go and serve other gods, and worship them,
Matthew 4:9-10 And he said to Him, "All these things I will give You if You will fall down and worship me." 10 Then Jesus said to him, "Away with you, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the LORD your God, and Him only you shall serve.'"

Jesus

Matthew 2:2 saying, "Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the East and have come to worship Him."
Hebrews 1:6 But when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says: "Let all the angels of God worship Him."
John 9:35-38 Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and when He had found him, He said to him, "Do you believe in the Son of God?" 36 He answered and said, "Who is He, Lord, that I may believe in Him?" 37 And Jesus said to him, "You have both seen Him and it is He who is talking with you." 38 Then he said, "Lord, I believe!" And he worshipped Him.

Who is not to be worshipped?

Acts 10:25-26 As Peter was coming in, Cornelius met him and fell down at his feet and worshiped him. 26 But Peter lifted him up, saying, "Stand up; I myself am also a man."
Revelation 19:10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. But he said to me, "See that you do not do that! I am your fellow servant, and of your brethren who have the testimony of Jesus. Worship God! For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy."
Revelation 22:8-9 Now I, John, saw and heard these things. And when I heard and saw, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel who showed me these things. 9 Then he said to me, "See that you do not do that. For I am your fellow servant, and of your brethren the prophets, and of those who keep the words of this book. Worship God."

 

32.03.04.02C Jesus God is to receive Glory

 

32.03.04.02D Jesus Christ, God the Son, is the Creator

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John 1:3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
Col 1:15 Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:
Col 1:16 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:
Col 1:17 And he is before all things, and by him all things consist.
Col 1:18 And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.
Col 1:19 For it pleased the Father that in him should all fulness dwell;
Eph 3:9 And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ:
Heb 1:2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;
Heb 1:10 And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:
Heb 3:4 For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God.

We would identify Jesus in the New Testament with the title of "Lord", and as the "Holy One of Israel".

Lord
Act 7:48 Howbeit the most High dwelleth not in temples made with hands; as saith the prophet,
Act 7:49 Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool: what house will ye build me? saith the Lord: or what is the place of my rest?
Act 7:50 Hath not my hand made all these things?
Act 17:23 For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you.
Act 17:24 God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands;

God the Son, Jesus Christ, as Creator
Note that the Word of God is also identified specifically in the Acts of Creation
Psa 33:6 By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth.
Heb 11:3 Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.

32.03.04.02E God, Jehovah (LORD in KJV), is the Creator Genesis 1:1

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Jehovah or LORD in KJV
Gen 1:1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
Gen 2:7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
Gen 2:8 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.
Gen 2:9 And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.
Gen 2:18 And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.
Gen 2:19 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.
Gen 2:22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.
Gen 3:1 Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?
Gen 6:6 And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.
Gen 6:7 And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them.
Gen 7:4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I (LORD 7:5) destroy from off the face of the earth.
Deu 32:18 Of the Rock that begat thee thou art unmindful, and hast forgotten God that formed thee.
Psa 33:6 By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth. 9 For he spake, and it was done; he commanded, and it stood fast.
Psa 96:5 For all the gods of the nations are idols: but the LORD made the heavens.
Psa 94:7 Yet they say, The LORD shall not see, neither shall the God of Jacob regard it. 9 He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? he that formed the eye, shall he not see?
Psa 95:3 For the LORD is a great God, and a great King above all gods. 5 The sea is his, and he made it: and his hands formed the dry land.
Psa 95:6 O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the LORD our maker.
Psa 100:3 Know ye that the LORD he is God: it is he that hath made us, and not we ourselves; we are his people, and the sheep of his pasture.
Psa 104:8 They go up by the mountains; they go down by the valleys unto the place which thou hast founded for them. (See Psa 104:1 LORD my God)
Psa 115:15 Ye are blessed of the LORD which made heaven and earth.
Psa 119:73 JOD. Thy hands have made me and fashioned me: give me understanding, that I may learn thy commandments.
Psa 121:2 My help cometh from the LORD, which made heaven and earth.
Psa 124:8 Our help is in the name of the LORD, who made heaven and earth.
Psa 134:3 The LORD that made heaven and earth bless thee out of Zion.
Psa 136:5 To him (136:1,2,3 the Lord, the God of gods, the Lord of lords) that by wisdom made the heavens: for his mercy endureth for ever.
Psa 136:6 To him that stretched out the earth above the waters: for his mercy endureth for ever.
Psa 136:7 To him that made great lights: for his mercy endureth for ever:
Psa 136:8 The sun to rule by day: for his mercy endureth for ever:
Psa 136:9 The moon and stars to rule by night: for his mercy endureth for ever.
Psa 146:6 Which made heaven, and earth, the sea, and all that therein is: which keepeth truth for ever: (See Psa 146:1 "LORD", Psa 146:5 "God of Jacob")
Pro 3:19 The LORD by wisdom hath founded the earth; by understanding hath he established the heavens.
Pro 22:2 The rich and poor meet together: the LORD is the maker of them all.
Isa 43:1 But now thus saith the LORD that created thee, O Jacob, and he that formed thee, O Israel, Fear not: for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name; thou art mine.
Isa 44:2 Thus saith the LORD that made thee, and formed thee from the womb, which will help thee; Fear not, O Jacob, my servant; and thou, Jesurun, whom I have chosen.
Isa 44:24 Thus saith the LORD, thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am the LORD that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself;
Isa 45:5 I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me:
Isa 45:6 That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside me. I am the LORD, and there is none else.
Isa 45:7 I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the LORD do all these things.
Isa 45:8 Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down righteousness: let the earth open, and let them bring forth salvation, and let righteousness spring up together; I the LORD have created it.
Isa 45:9 Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker! Let the potsherd strive with the potsherds of the earth. Shall the clay say to him that fashioneth it, What makest thou? or thy work, He hath no hands?
Isa 45:11 Thus saith the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker, Ask me of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands command ye me.
Isa 45:12 I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.
Isa 45:13 ... saith the LORD of hosts.
Isa 45:18 For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else.
Isa 51:13 And forgettest the LORD thy maker, that hath stretched forth the heavens, and laid the foundations of the earth; and hast feared continually every day because of the fury of the oppressor, as if he were ready to destroy? and where is the fury of the oppressor?
Isa 54:5 For thy Maker is thine husband; the LORD of hosts is his name; and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel; The God of the whole earth shall he be called.
Amo 4:13 For, lo, he that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, and declareth unto man what is his thought, that maketh the morning darkness, and treadeth upon the high places of the earth, The LORD, The God of hosts, is his name.
Zec 12:1 The burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, saith the LORD, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him.
Act 4:24 And when they heard that, they lifted up their voice to God with one accord, and said, Lord, thou art God, which hast made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all that in them is:

When groups such as the Jehovah's Witnesses try to attack the deity of Jesus Christ, they declare that Jesus is an archangel, created by the one true God, Jehovah, and that after Jehovah created Jesus, Jehovah did not create anything else, but left the rest of Creation for Jesus to perform. This is simply a twisting of Scripture to say what it doesn't really say. The first account of Creation that God gives us in Genesis 1 and 2 says nothing about either Jesus nor any angel of God creating the universe, but states exactly "God created the heaven and the earth". The first verse in the Bible has to be of importance in most people's thinking, and if Jesus is a minor or insignificant god (lower case god), then how is it that God begins Holy Scripture with this minor god instead of the TRUE GOD!? This same true and only God says in Gen 1:27 that He created man in HIS IMAGE. The God of Genesis 1 is the true and only God.

God
Gen 1:7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
Gen 1:16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
Gen 1:25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
Gen 1:26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
Gen 1:27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
Gen 1:31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
Gen 2:2 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.
Gen 2:3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.
Gen 2:4 These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens,
Gen 2:9 And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.
Gen 2:18 And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.
Gen 2:22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.
Gen 3:1 Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?
Gen 5:1 This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;
Job 10:8 Thine hands (of God Job 10:2) have made me and fashioned me together round about; yet thou dost destroy me.
Job 35:10 But none saith, Where is God my maker, who giveth songs in the night;
Psa 89:11 The heavens are thine, the earth also is thine: as for the world and the fulness thereof, thou hast founded them. (LORD GOD see 89:8)
Psa 100:3 Know ye that the LORD he is God: it is he that hath made us, and not we ourselves; we are his people, and the sheep of his pasture.
Ecc 11:5 As thou knowest not what is the way of the spirit, nor how the bones do grow in the womb of her that is with child: even so thou knowest not the works of God who maketh all.
Isa 37:16 O LORD of hosts, God of Israel, that dwellest between the cherubims, thou art the God, even thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth: thou hast made heaven and earth.
Act 4:24 And when they heard that, they lifted up their voice to God with one accord, and said, Lord, thou art God, which hast made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all that in them is:
Rom 9:20 Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus?
Act 14:15 And saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein:
Act 17:24 God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands;
Rom 9:20 Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus?
Rom 9:21 Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?
Heb 11:10 For he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God.
Rev 14:7 Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.

32.03.04.02F Jehovah, Lord God is the Creator

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Here God affirms that "the Lord (Jehovah) God made the earth and the heavens" as in other places (Gen 6:7; Psa 148:5; Isa 40, especially Isa 40:10, 18, 26; Is 43:1; Isa 45:7-8, 11-12).

Isa 40:28 Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard, that the everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth, fainteth not, neither is weary? there is no searching of his understanding.

Isa 42:5 Thus saith God [El] the LORD[Jehovah], he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein:

Isa 45:18 For thus saith the LORD[Jehovah] that created the heavens; God[Elohim] himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD[Jehovah]; and there is none else.

This passage identifies the "everlasting God (Elohim), the Lord (Jehovah), as being the Creator of the earth, from one end to the other.

Amo 4:13 For, lo, he that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, and declareth unto man what is his thought, that maketh the morning darkness, and treadeth upon the high places of the earth, The LORD[Jehovah], The God[Elohim] of hosts, is his name.

Here God informs us that Jehovah, Elohim is who made the mountains and the wind.

32.03.04.02G Jesus is the Creator of the universe.

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Now once we establish the fact that the Old Testament, clearly using the personal titles and names of God, Jehovah, El, Elohim, etc., we turn to the New Testament and see with clarity that the Bible places Jesus as this same God.

1Ti 4:3 Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.
1Pe 4:19 Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator.
Rev 4:11 Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.

32.03.04.02H Eph 3:9

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Eph 3:9 And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ:

Col 1:15 Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:
Col 1:16 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:
Col 1:17 And he is before all things, and by him all things consist.
Col 3:10 And have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him:
 

32.03.04.02I Jesus is the "Firstborn"

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Col 1:15 Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:

32.03.04.02J Christ being the Savior also recreates us into New Creatures

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Eph 2:10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.
Jas 1:18 Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be a kind of firstfruits of his creatures.

32.03.04.03 Jesus is the Savior

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Perhaps one of the most difficult points to understand if we reject the deity of Jesus Christ is how Christ clearly understood and presented himself as the absolute perfection of every sinner. In other words, Jesus confronted every sinner with the concept, "You have a problem in your sin, and I am the solution to that problem. You need me." We see salvation being a love affair between the sinner and God, and this presentation would be highly blasphemous if Jesus is not God. How can a mere man, or a mere angel, present themselves to sinful men in this way?

8. In relation to man's spiritual needs, Jesus regards himself as the ultimate and perfect supply. "Jesus answered and said unto her, Every one that drinketh of this water shall thirst again: but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall become in him a well of water springing up unto eternal life" (Saint John 4.13, 14; compare with Saint John 10.10).
  Olin Alfred Curtis (1850-1918) - The Christian Faith chapter 16 (1905)

Isaiah 43:11 I, even I, am the LORD, And besides Me there is no savior.
1 Timothy 2:3 For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior,
Jude 1:25 To God our Savior, Who alone is wise, Be glory and majesty, Dominion and power, Both now and forever. Amen.

Titus 2:13 looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ,
2 Peter 1:11 for so an entrance will be supplied to you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
1 John 4:14 And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son as Savior of the world.

 

 

32.03.04.04 Jesus is Owner and Head of the Human Race

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Another very important support of Jesus' Deity is that He is the Owner and Head of the Human Race. This concept is necessary if he is to "redeem his own". Working as a lawyer to defend and free the human race from charges of sin before the court of heaven, he must have a valid entry right into the court and to represent humanity. While the representation is established twofold, (1) because Jesus is Creator, and (2) Jesus is the head of the human race, the validity to come before God is also established by two points: (1) Jesus is sinless, and (2) Jesus is God.

9. Jesus regards himself as the Race-Man. Of all the discussions bearing upon the term "Son of man," in its meaning as used by our Lord, the discussion by Professor Stevens, in his Theology of the New Testament, seems to me to be the most nearly satisfactory. But, for my purpose, this term "Son of man" has no large importance; and for the sufficient reason that we already have, in the four facts noted in this connection, a clear revelation of our Saviour's consciousness of his peculiar relation to men. When we try to state this peculiar relation in a compact word we can do no better than to say that Jesus Christ is conscious of being the Race-Man. On the one side, he owns the race. It is his race in such a final way that he has the absolute right to make his claim upon all men. No man, high or low, rich or poor, this or that, can escape him. In his consciousness there is a great racial grasp. And, then, on the other hand, he belongs to the whole race. Every man has a property in him. It is his supreme business to live with men and for men, all men. Therefore, there is a fitness in his redemptive work. It is not extraneous.

It does not come at men from the outside. Our Saviour is not a stranger. His Relation to the Moral Law. Now, holding fast to what we have, namely, our Lord's consciousness of the redemptive purpose of his mission and of his peculiar relation to mankind, it becomes exceedingly important to discover the content of his moral consciousness. How was he, in consciousness, related to the moral law under which man must be redeemed, if redeemed at all?

10. The first thing to be marked here is that Jesus Christ never manifested any consciousness of being himself a sinner. This point does not in the least depend upon the minute exegesis of such a text as that in Saint John's gospel (8.46), where our Lord exclaims, "Which of you convicteth me of sin?" It is a matter of personal bearing. Read the record in the gospels from end to end, and you become positive that Jesus felt perfectly free from sin.   Olin Alfred Curtis (1850-1918) - The Christian Faith chapter 16 (1905)

32.03.04.05 Jesus is the Final Judge of Sinners

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Jesus as the Savior is one of the roles he fulfills, but Jesus is also the final judge of all sinners also. Mat 10:32-33 will judge the life of each person and redeem that person or deny that person salvation on the basis of that person's faith in him (Jesus Christ the Savior). This judge over mankind means that the judge must be of some way above the men he judges. Jesus therefore must be God because he is man's judge, and while his humanity establishes his link with mankind, his deity (especially seen in as the Creator of mankind) establishes the right and authority to judge mankind.

11. Even as the separate texts are overarched by the general bearing of Jesus, so his general bearing is overarched by the one fact that he claimed to have the moral authority to forgive sin. But that ye may know that the Son of man hath authority on earth to forgive sins (Saint Matt. 9.6; read the entire passage in Saint Mark 2.5-12).

12. But all -- the separate texts, the general bearing, and the forgiveness of sin -- are overarched by our Lord's assertion that he alone is to be the final Judge of men. "For neither doth the Father judge any man, but he hath given all judgment unto the Son" (Saint John 5.22). "For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then shall he render unto every man according to his deeds "(Saint Matt. 16.27)  Olin Alfred Curtis (1850-1918) - The Christian Faith chapter 16 (1905)

"For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son: That all men should honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent him" (John 5:22, 23). This declaration that the Father judgeth no man—better "no one"—is especially noteworthy. The Father is the One whom we might most naturally expect to be the Judge. He is the first who was wronged. It is His rights (though not His exclusively) which have been denied. His governmental claims have been set at naught. He was the One who sent here the Lord Jesus who has been despised and rejected. But instead of the Father being the Judge, He hath "committed all judgment unto the Son," and the reason for this is "that all should honor the Son, even as they honor the Father." There is then, or more correctly, there will be, absolute equality between the Father and the Son in Divine honors...

"And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man. Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation" (John 5:27-29). This brings us to the seventh proof for the absolute Deity of Christ: He is co-equal with the Father in judicial authority and power.

"And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man." The "also" seems to point back to verse 22, where we are told, "The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son." Judgment has been committed to the Son in order that all should honor Him even as they honor the Father. But here in verse 27 Christ gives an additional reason: the Father has also appointed the Lord Jesus to execute judgment "because he is the Son of man." It was because the Son of God had become clothed with flesh and walked this earth as Man, that He was despised and rejected and His Divine glories disowned. This supplies a further reason why it is meet that the Son of man should be Judge in the last great day. The despised One shall be in the place of supreme honor and authority. All will be compelled to bow the knee before Him; and thus will He be glorified before them and His outraged rights vindicated.
 Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 18

Second, who but God is capable of acting as Judge in the Great Assize! None but He can read the heart, and none but He possesses the necessary wisdom for such a stupendous task as determining the sentence due to each one of that vast assemblage which will stand before the great white throne. Thus we see that from start to finish this wonderful passage sets forth the Godhood of the Savior. Let us then honor Him even as we honor the Father, and prostrate ourselves before Him in adoring worship. Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 18

Jesus considered himself to be the expression of moral perfect, sinless, the example of God for holiness. This presentation of Jesus that obviously Jesus himself considered valid and something to teach humanity is hard to accept if Jesus was just a normal man, or even an angel. It borders on haughtiness that is never seen in mankind or angels as anything except demonic. The person making these kinds of claims must be God himself.

32.03.04.06 The King of Israel

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God Isaiah 44:6 Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.
Zephaniah 3:15 The LORD hath taken away thy judgments, he hath cast out thine enemy: the king of Israel, even the LORD, is in the midst of thee: thou shalt not see evil any more.

Jesus

Matthew 27:42 He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him.
Mark 15:32 Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him.
John 1:48-49 Nathanael saith unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee. 49 Nathanael answered and saith unto him, Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel.
John 12:12-15 On the next day much people that were come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, 13 Took branches of palm trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried, Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord. 14 And Jesus, when he had found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written, 15 Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass's colt.
Matthew 27:11 And Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest.
Matthew 27:29 And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews!
John 19:19-21 And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS. 20 This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. 21 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.

32.03.04.07 The King of Earth

God

Psalms 47:2 For the LORD most high is terrible; he is a great King over all the earth.
Psalms 47:7 For God is the King of all the earth: sing ye praises with understanding.
Jeremiah 10:6-7 Forasmuch as there is none like unto thee, O LORD; thou art great, and thy name is great in might. 7 Who would not fear thee, O King of nations? for to thee doth it appertain: forasmuch as among all the wise men of the nations, and in all their kingdoms, there is none like unto thee.
Daniel 7:27 And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.
Zechariah 14:9 And the LORD shall be king over all the earth: in that day shall there be one LORD, and his name one.
Zechariah 14:16-17 And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles. 17 And it shall be, that whoso will not come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, even upon them shall be no rain.
2 Thessalonians 1:5 Which is a manifest token of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which ye also suffer:
Romans 14:17 For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.
1 Corinthians 6:9-10 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, 10 Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.

Jesus

Ephesians 5:5 For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.
Colossians 1:13 Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son:
2 Timothy 4:1 I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom;
Hebrews 1:8 But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom.
2 Peter 1:11 For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.
Revelation 1:9 I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.
Revelation 11:15 And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever. (Ephesians 4:5 One Lord, one faith, one baptism)

a. Romans 5:21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.
b. Acts 11:17 Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us, who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ; what was I, that I could withstand God?
c. Acts 15:11 But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they.

32.03.04.08 The King of Kings

God Daniel 2:47 The king answered unto Daniel, and said, Of a truth it is, that your God is a God of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer of secrets, seeing thou couldest reveal this secret.

Jesus

1 Timothy 6:14-15 That thou keep this commandment without spot, unrebukeable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ: 15 Which in his times he shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords;
Revelation 17:14 These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful.
Revelation 19:13-16 And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God. 14 And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. 15 And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. 16 And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

 

32.03.05 The Divine Attributes of Jesus Christ

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Divine Attributes

But there is a second line of proof that Jesus Christ is God, a proof equally convincing, and that is, all the five distinctively Divine attributes are ascribed to Jesus Christ, and "
all the fulness of the Godhead" is said to dwell in Him. There are five distinctively Divine attributes, that is, five attributes that God alone possesses. These are Omnipotence, Omniscience, Omnipresence, Eternity and Immutability. Each one of these distinctively Divine attributes are ascribed to Jesus Christ.
  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

32.03.05.01 Jesus is God Almighty (Omnipotence)

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First of all, omnipotence is ascribed to Jesus Christ. Not only are we taught that Jesus had power over diseases and death and winds and sea and demons, that they were all subject to His word, and that He is far above all principality and power and might and dominion and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in the world to come (Eph. 1:20-23), but in Hebrews 1:3 it is said in so many words that He "[upholdeth] all things by the word of his power."  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

For a continued discussion of Jesus Divine power, see 32.03.05.04 Jesus' Power

32.03.05.02 Jesus is Omniscience

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Omniscience is also ascribed to Him. We are taught in the Bible that Jesus knew men's lives, even their secret history (John 4:16-19), that He knew the secret thoughts of men, knew all men, knew what was in man (Mark 2:8; Luke 5:22; John 2:24,25), which knowledge we are distinctly told in 2 Chronicles 6:30 and Jeremiah 17:9-10, that God alone possesses. We are told in so many words in John 16:30 that Jesus knew "all things," and in Colossians 2:3 we find that in Him "are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge."  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

32.03.05.03 Jesus is Omnipresence

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Omnipresence is also ascribed to Him. We are told in Matthew 18:20 that where two or three are gathered together in His Name, that He is in the midst of them, and in Matthew 28:20 that wherever His obedient disciples should go, He would be with them, even unto the end of the age, and in John 14:20 and 2 Corinthians 13:5 we are told that He dwells in each believer, in all the millions of believers scattered over the earth. In Ephesians 1:23 we are told that He "filleth all in all."  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

32.03.05.04 Jesus is Eternity

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Eternity is also ascribed to Him. We are told in John 1:1 that "in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." In John 8:58 Jesus Himself said, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am." Note that the Lord Jesus did not merely say that "before Abraham was I was," but that "before Abraham was, I AM," thus declaring Himself to be the eternal "I AM." Even in the Old Testament we have a declaration of the eternity of the Christ who was to be born in Bethlehem. In Micah 5:2 we read, "But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting." And in Isaiah 9:6 we are told of the child that is to be born, "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace." And in Hebrews 13:8 we are told, "Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever."  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

32.03.05.05 Jesus is Immutability

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His immutability is also taught in the passage just quoted from Hebrews, and in the first chapter of the same book, in verses eleven and twelve, we find that while even the heavens change, the Lord Jesus does not change. The exact words are, "They shall perish; but thou remainest; and they all shall wax old as cloth a garment; And as a vesture shalt thou fold them up, and they shall be changed: but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail."

Each one of the five distinctively Divine attributes were ascribed to our Lord Jesus Christ. And in Colossians 2:9 we are told in so many words, "For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily [in a bodily form]." Here again we might rest our case, for what has been said under this heading, even if taken alone, clearly proves the absolute Deity of our Lord Jesus Christ. It shows that He possesses every perfection of nature and character that God the Father possesses.
  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

 

 

32.03.05.06 Jesus shares the Divine Will

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"For the Father loveth the Son, and showeth him all things that himself doeth: and he will show him greater works than these, that ye may marvel" (John 5:20). Here again the carnal mind is puzzled. If Christ be the Son of God why does He need to be "shown." When we "show" a child something it is because it is ignorant. When we "show" the traveler the right road, it is because he does not know it. Refuge is sought again in the mediatorship of Christ. But this destroys the beauty of the verse and mars the unity of the passage. What seems to point to an imperfection or limitation in Christ’s knowledge only brings out once more His matchless excellency.

"For the Father loveth the Son and showeth him all things that himself doeth." The opening word "For" intimates there is a close connection between this and the verse immediately preceding, as well as with the whole context. It intimates that our Lord is still submitting the proof that He was "equal with God." The argument of this verse in a word is this:
The Father has no secrets from the Son. Because He is the Son of God, the Father loveth Him; that is to say, because they are in common possession of the same infinite perfections, there is an ineffable affection of the Father to the Son, and this love is manifested by the Father "showing the Son all things." There is no restraint and no constraint between them: there is the most perfect intimacy because of their co-equality. Let me try to reduce this profound truth to a simple level. If an entire stranger were to visit your home, there are many things you would not think of "showing" him—the family portrait-album for example. But with an intimate friend or a loved relative there would be no such reluctance. The illustration falls far short we know, but perhaps it may help some to grasp better the line of thought we are seeking to present.
  Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 18

32.03.05.07 Jesus shares the Divine Intelligence

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But not only do the words "the Father loveth the Son" make manifest the perfect intimacy there is between them, but the additional words "showeth him all things that himself doeth" evidences another of the Divine glories of Christ, namely, the absolute equality of intelligence that there is between the Father and the Son. Let us again bring the thought down to a human level. What would be the use of discussing with an illiterate person the mathematics of the fourth dimension? What’s the value of taking a child in the first grade and "showing" him the solution of a problem in algebra? Who, then, is capable of understanding all the ways and workings of God? No mere creature. Fallen man is incapable of knowing God. The believer learns but gradually and slowly, and only then as he is taught by the Holy Spirit. Even the unfallen angels know God’s mind but in part—there are things they desire "to look into" (1 Pet. 1:12). To whom then could God show the full counsel of His mind? And again we answer, To no mere creature, for the creature however high in rank has no capacity to grasp it. The finite cannot comprehend the infinite. Is it not self-evident, then, that if the Father showeth the Son "all things that himself doeth" He must be of the same mind as the Father? that they are one, absolutely equal in intelligence! Christ has the capacity to apprehend and comprehend "all things that the Father doeth," therefore, He must be "equal with God," for none but God could measure the Father’s mind perfectly.

"The idea seems to be this, that the love of the Father, and of the Son, their perfect complacency in each other, is manifest in the perfect knowledge which the Son has of the period at which, the purpose for which, and the manner in which, the Divine power equally possessed by them is to be put forth. It is in consequence of this knowledge, as if our Lord had said—‘That in this case (the healing of the impotent man) I have exercised Divine power while My Father was exercising it’

"And He adds, ‘Still further—still more extraordinary manifestations of this community of knowledge, will, and operation of the Father, and of the Son, will be made.’ ‘He will show him greater works than these, that ye may marvel,’ or ‘that ye shall marvel’; that is, we apprehend, ‘the Son, in consequence of His perfect knowledge of the mind, and will, and operations of His Divine Father, will yet make still more remarkable displays of that Divine power which is equally His Father’s and His own’—such displays as will fill with amazement all who witness them. What these displays were to be, appears from what follows: He had healed the impotent man, but He was soon to raise to life some who had been dead; nay, at a future period He was to raise to life all the dead and act as the Governor and Judge of all mankind" (Dr. John Brown).
  Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 18

32.03.05.08 Jesus shares the Power to Give Life

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"Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life" (John 5:24). Once more we find the Lord, as in verse 17, linking Himself in closest union with the Father: "heareth my Word, and believeth him that sent me." But as we have already dwelt at such length on the dominant thought running all through our passage, we turn now to consider other subordinate though most blessed truths. This verse has been a great favorite with the Lord’s people. It has been used of God to bring peace and assurance to many a troubled soul. It speaks of eternal life as a present possession—"hath everlasting life," not shall have when we die, or when the resurrection morning comes. Two things are here mentioned which are evidences and results of having everlasting life, though they are usually regarded as two conditions. The hearing ear and the believing heart are the consequences of having eternal life and not the qualifications for obtaining it. Then it is added, "and shall not come into condemnation’’: this guarantees the future—"There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus" (Rom. 8:1). No condemnation for the believer because it fell upon his Substitute. Another reason why the believer shall not come into condemnation is because he has "passed from death," which is the realm of condemnation, "into life."

"Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live" (John 5:25). This continues the same thought as in the previous verse, though adding further details. ‘The dead shall hear:" what a paradox to the carnal mind! Yet all becomes luminous when we remember that it is the voice of the Son of God they hear. His voice alone can penetrate into the place of death, and because His voice is a life-giving voice, the dead hear it and live. The capacity to hear accompanies the power of the Voice that speaks, and it is just because that Voice is a life-giving one that the dead hear it at all, and heating, live. Here then is the sixth proof presented for the Deity of Christ: the Son claims absolute equality with the Father in the power to give life.

"For as the Father has life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself" (John 5:26). This confirms what we have just said above, while bringing in one further amplification. The Father hath "life in himself." "It belongs to His nature; He has received it from no one; it is an essential attribute of His necessarily existing nature: He so has life that He can impart, withdraw, and restore it to whomsoever He pleases. He is the fountain of all life. All in heaven and in earth who have life, have received it from Him. They have not life in themselves" (Dr. John Brown). Now in like manner the life of Christ is not a derived life. "In him was life" (John 1:4). He is able to communicate life to others because the Father hath "given to the Son to have life in himself." The word "given" must be understood figuratively and not literally, in the sense of appointed, not imparted: see its usage in Isaiah 42:6; 49:8; 55:4. So also the word "given him to have," signifies to hold or administer. Thus, inasmuch as all creatures live and move and have their being in God, but in contrast from them Christ has "life in himself," He cannot be a mere creature but must be "equal with God."
 Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 18

32.03.06 The Divine Abilities of Jesus Christ

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32.03.06.01 Jesus' Power

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What we see in the person of Jesus Christ is power which is not granted to him by God the Father, but power which naturally of Jesus himself flows from himself. This power is direct testimony to Jesus divine character, to his being God.

.The Blood of the Lamb. The conception of the Lamb slain is involved also in the expression "the blood of the Lamb"; but "the blood of the Lamb" is most definitely related to the salvation of men from sin. Such a connection is established even in the first chapter -- "Unto him that loveth us, and loosed us from our sins by his blood" (Rev 1.5). And then of those before God in white robes the elder says: "These are they that come out of the great tribulation, and they washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb" (Rev 7.14). And speaking of the conquest over "the accuser of our brethren," Saint John says: "And they overcame him because of the blood of the Lamb" (Rev 12.11).

The Lamb and the Book. As to the meaning of this "book written within and on the back, close sealed with seven seals" (Rev 5.1), many opinions have been given; but, with any possible view, Saint John is paying an extraordinary tribute to the power of the Lamb. He alone can open the peculiar book. And I think we may safely say more, even that Saint John himself furnishes the clue to his meaning. A little later, in the ninth verse of this fifth chapter, we read: "And they sing a new song, saying, Worthy art thou to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and didst purchase unto God with thy blood men of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation." This, to me, means, when put into simple phrase, that the Lamb of God alone has power to save men, and he has this power because he died for their sins. That is, the strange, difficult book was the problem of human redemption. And, further, the elaborate description of the book is but a figurative way of saying that the moral difficulties of redemption were almost insuperable. In fact, all through Saint John's peculiar imagery, there is a most intense moral emphasis. His throne of God is nothing whatever but the moral law.

The Lamb and the Redeemed. The first thing to note as to the redeemed is that they do not come out of the twelve tribes alone. "After these things I saw, and behold, a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb "(Rev 7. 9). Thus, redemption is lifted out of ethnic locality and given a racial extent. Again, these redeemed men are in a relation of loyalty and fellowship with the Lamb. "These are they that follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth" (Rev 14.4). And, again and again, we have the idea that the redeemed absolutely belong to the Lamb by purchase. They "were purchased from among men" (Rev 14.4, etc.).

The Lamb and the Throne of God. In almost every part of the entire book the Lamb sustains a peculiar relation to the enthroned God. And the emphasis of this peculiar relation culminates in the ascription of worship "unto him that sitteth on the throne and unto the Lamb": "And every created thing which is in the heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and on the sea, and all things that are in them, heard I saying, Unto him that sitteth on the throne, and unto the Lamb, be the blessing, and the honor, and the glory, and the dominion, for ever and ever" (Rev 5.13).  Olin Alfred Curtis (1850-1918) - The Christian Faith chapter 16 (1905)

32.03.06.02 Jesus as God in His relationship with the church

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Acts 20:28 "Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood."

The church is identified as being the "church belonging to God". God is qualified as being the one who purchased the church with his own blood. Did God the Father die on the Cross or did Jesus? Well, Jesus did. Then Jesus is the God spoken of here.

32.03.06.03 Jesus' Divine Authority is seen in His Teachings

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We see from the beginning of Jesus' ministry, even in the time he was a child visiting the temple (Luke 2:46-47) that Jesus had a divine authority in His character. Perhaps other men of God also had this divine authority in his character, ministry, and teaching, but not had it like Jesus.

5. Jesus ever regards himself as the final authority for men. Notice the tone of authority in his forms of speech: "Verily, verily, I say unto you;" "Ye have heard how it hath been said, but I say unto you." Sometimes the strangest thing in his speech is not its content, but its manner, the way it manifests an absolute consciousness that he himself is the last court of appeal. (See Saint Matt. 5.18-39 and Saint John 14.2, 3.)

6. Jesus regards himself as the supreme Master of men. As supreme Master he demands obedience. "And why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say?" (Saint Luke 6.46; compare with Saint John 21. 22.)

7. As a further revelation of the consciousness of mastership over men, notice our Lord's claim upon their love "He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me" (Saint Matt. 10.37; and, as a significant background, read the passage in Saint Matt. 22.37-39).  Olin Alfred Curtis (1850-1918) - The Christian Faith chapter 16 (1905)

"And ye have not his word abiding in you: for whom he hath sent, him ye believe not" (John 5:38). Here our Lord begins to make solemn application of what He had said to the consciences and hearts of these Jews. Note the awful charges which He brings against them: "ye have not his word abiding in you" (verse 38); "Ye will not come to me" (verse 40); "ye have not the love of God in you" (verse 42); "ye receive me not" (verse 43); "ye seek not the honor that cometh from God only" (verse 44); "ye believe not" (verse 47). But notice carefully the basic charge: "ye have not his word abiding in you." This explained all the others. This was the cause of which the others were but the inevitable effects. If God’s Word has no place in man’s hearts they will not come to Christ, they will not receive Him, they will not love God, and they will not seek the honor that cometh from God only. It is only as the Word is hidden in our hearts that we are preserved from sinning against God.  Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 19.

32.03.06.04 Jesus' Divine Authority is seen in His Commandments to Men

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17. We have caught glimpses of our Saviour's redemptional consciousness, here and there, during his active ministry; but the inquiry naturally arises, After his resurrection, does he manifest the same consciousness, the same conception of himself? "And when they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted. And Jesus came to them and spake unto them, saying, All authority hath been given unto me in heaven and on earth. Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit: teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I commanded you: and lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world" (Saint Matt. 28.17-20; compare with Saint Mark 16.14-16; also with Saint Luke 24.44-49; also with Acts 1.6-8). The rationalistic contention that this passage reveals an altogether different attitude from that of Jesus before his crucifixion is such a contention as we would expect from men who have never caught the spirit and progressive method in our Lord's mission of redemption. But I am quite sure that to the real Christian consciousness this most extraordinary passage effectually appeals as an indorsement, in succinct expression, of the same redemptional consciousness which our Saviour had during his active ministry. The passage is neither more nor less than the conjoining, for the establishment and future work of the Christian church, of all the tremendous claims which our Lord had ever made.  Olin Alfred Curtis (1850-1918) - The Christian Faith chapter 16 (1905)

32.03.06.05 Jesus' Power to Raise the Dead

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"For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will" (John 5:21). This verse presents the fourth proof of Christ’s Deity. Here He affirms His absolute equality with the Father in sovereign rights. This affords further evidence that the Lord Jesus was not here speaking as the dependent Servant, but as the Son of God. He lays claim to Divine sovereignty. The healing of the impotent man was an object lesson: it not only demonstrated His power, but it illustrated His absolute sovereignty. He had not healed the entire company of impotent folk who lay around the Pool; instead, He had singled out just one, and had made him whole. So He works and so He acts in the spiritual realm. He does not quicken (spiritually) all men, but those "whom He will." He does not quicken the worthy, for there are none. He does not quicken those who seek quickening, for being dead in sin, none begin to seek until they are quickened. The Son quickeneth whom He will: He says so, that ends the matter. It is not to be reasoned about, but believed. To quicken is to impart life, and to impart life is a Divine prerogative. How this confirms our interpretation of the previous verses! It is the Divine rights of Christ which are here affirmed.

"For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will." The verse opens with the word "for," showing it is advancing a reason or furnishing a proof in connection with what had been said previously. In our judgment it looks back first to verse 19 and gives an illustration of "what things soever he (the Father) doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise"—the Father quickens, so does the Son. But there is also a direct connection with the verse immediately preceding. There he had referred to "greater works" than healing the impotent man. Here, then, is a specimen—quickening the dead: making alive spiritually those who are dead in sins. This is a further demonstration of His absolute equality with the Father.
  Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 18

First, the fact that "all that are in the graves shall hear" the voice of Christ and shall "come forth," proves that He is far more than the most exalted creature. Who but God is able to regather all the scattered elements which have gone to corruption!  Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 18

God will raise the Dead

Romans 10:9 that if you confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.

Jesus will raise the Dead

John 2:19 Jesus answered and said to them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up."

35.03.06.06 Jesus-God has shed his blood for the Church

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God Acts 20:28 "Therefore take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.

Jesus

1 Peter 1:19 but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.
Hebrews 13:12 Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with His own blood, suffered outside the gate.
Colossians 1:14 in whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins.

 

32.03.07 Direct Statements

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Volume 2 ch. X
The Deity of Christ

by Professor Benjamin B. Warfield, D.D., LL.D.,
Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, New Jersey

A recent writer has remarked that our assured conviction of the deity of Christ rests, not upon "proof-texts or passages, nor upon old arguments drawn from these, but upon the general fact of the whole manifestation of Jesus Christ, and of the whole impression left by Him upon the world." The antithesis is too absolute, and possibly betrays an unwarranted distrust of the evidence of Scripture. To make it just, we should read the statement rather thus: Our conviction of the deity of Christ rests not alone on the Scriptural passages which assert it, but also on His entire impression on the world; or perhaps thus: Our conviction rests no more on the scriptural assertions than upon His entire manifestation. Both lines of evidence are valid; and when twisted together form an unbreakable cord. The proof-texts and passages do prove that Jesus was esteemed divine by those who companied with Him; that He esteemed Himself divine; that He was recognized as divine by those who were taught by the Spirit; that, in fine, He was divine. But over and above this Biblical evidence the impression Jesus has left upon the world bears independent testimony to His deity, and it may well be that to many minds this will seem the most conclusive of all its evidences. It certainly is very cogent and impressive.

Experience as Proof

The justification which the author we have just quoted gives of his neglecting the scriptural evidence in favor of that borne by Jesus' impression on the world is also open to criticism. "Jesus Christ," he tells us, "is one of those essential truths which are too great to be proved, like God, or freedom, or immortality." Such things rest, it seems, not on proofs but on experience. We need not stop to point out that this experience is itself a proof. We wish rather to point out that some confusion seems to have been fallen into here between our ability to marshal the proof by which we are convinced and our accessibility to its force. It is quite true that "the most essential conclusions of the human mind are much wider and stronger than the arguments by which they are supported;" that the proofs "are always changing but the beliefs persist." But this is not because the conclusions in question rest on no sound proofs; but because we have not had the skill to adduce, in our argumentative presentations of them, the really fundamental proofs on which they rest.

Unconscious Rationality

A man recognizes on sight the face of his friend, or his own handwriting. Ask him how he knows his face to be that of his friend, or this handwriting to be his own, and he is dumb, or, seeking to reply, babbles nonsense. Yet his recognition rests on solid grounds, though he lacks analytical skill to isolate and state these solid grounds. We believe in God and freedom and immortality on good grounds, though we may not be able satisfactorily to analyse these grounds. No true conviction exists without adequate rational grounding in evidence. So, if we are solidly assured of the deity of Christ, it will be on adequate grounds, appealing to the reason. But it may well be on grounds not analysed, perhaps not analysable, by us, so as to exhibit themselves in the forms of formal logic.

We do not need to wait to analyse the grounds of our convictions before they operate to produce convictions, any more than we need to wait to analyse our food before it nourishes us; and we can soundly believe on evidence much mixed with error, just as we can thrive on food far from pure. The alchemy of the mind, as of the digestive tract, knows how to separate out from the mass what it requires for its support; and as we may live without any knowledge of chemistry, so we may possess earnest convictions, solidly founded in right reason, without the slightest knowledge of logic. The Christian's conviction of the deity of his Lord does not depend for its soundness on the Christian's ability convincingly to state the grounds of his conviction. The evidence he offers for it may be wholly inadequate, while the evidence on which it rests may be absolutely compelling.

Testimony in Solution

The very abundance and persuasiveness of the evidence of the deity of Christ greatly increases the difficulty of adequately stating it. This is true even of the scriptural evidence, as precise and definite as much of it is. For it is a true remark of Dr. Dale's that the particular texts in which it is definitely asserted are far from the whole, or even the most impressive, proofs which the Scriptures supply of our Lord's deity. He compares these texts to the salt-crystals which appear on the sand of the sea-beach after the tide has receded. "These are not," he remarks, "the strongest, though they may be the most apparent, proofs that the sea is salt; the salt is present in solution in every bucket of sea-water." The deity of Christ is in solution in every page of the New Testament. Every word that is spoken of Him, every word which He is reported to have spoken of Himself, is spoken on the assumption that He is God. And that is the reason why the "criticism" which addresses itself to eliminating the testimony of the New Testament to the deity of our Lord has set itself a hopeless task. The New Testament itself would have to be eliminated. Nor can we get behind this testimony. Because the deity of Christ is the presupposition of every word of the New Testament, it is impossible to select words out of the New Testament from which to construct earlier documents in the which the deity of Christ shall not be assumed. The assured conviction of the deity of Christ is coeval with Christianity itself. There never was a Christianity, neither in the times of the Apostles nor since, of which this was not a prime tenet.

A Saturated Gospel

Let us observe in an example or two how thoroughly saturated the Gospel narrative is with the assumption of the deity of Christ, so that it crops out in the most unexpected ways and places.

In three passages of Matthew, reporting words of Jesus, He is represented as speaking familiarly and in the most natural manner in the world, of "His angels" (13:41; 16:27; 24:31). In all three He designates Himself as the "Son of man;" and in all three there are additional suggestions of His majesty. "The Son of man shall send forth His angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that cause stumbling and those that do iniquity, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire."

Who is this Son of man who has angels, by whose instrumentality the final judgment is executed at His command? "The Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father with His angels; and then shall He reward every man according to his deeds." Who is this Son of man surrounded by His angels, in whose hands are the issues of life? The Son of man "shall send forth His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other." Who is this Son of man at whose behest His angels winnow men? A scrutiny of the passages will show that it is not a peculiar body of angels which is meant by the Son of man's angels, but just the angels as a body, who are His to serve Him as He commands. In a word, Jesus Christ is above angels (Mark 13:32) — as is argued at explicit length at the beginning of the Epistle to the Hebrews. "To which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, etc." (Heb. 1:13).

Heaven Come to Earth

There are three parables recorded in the fifteenth chapter of Luke as spoken by our Lord in His defence against the murmurs of the Pharisees at His receiving sinners and eating with them. The essence of the defence which our Lord offers for Himself is, that there is joy in heaven over repentant sinners! Why "in heaven," "before the throne of God?" Is He merely setting the judgment of heaven over against that of earth, or pointing forward to His future vindication? By no means. He is representing His action in receiving sinners, in seeking the lost, as His proper action, because it is the normal conduct of heaven, manifested in Him. He is heaven come to earth. His defence is thus simply the unveiling of what that real nature of the transaction is. The lost when they come to Him are received because this is heaven's way; and He cannot act otherwise than in heaven's way. He tacitly assumes the good Shepherd's part as His own.

The Unique Position

All the great designations are not so much asserted as assumed by Him for Himself. He does not call Himself a prophet, though He accepts this designation from others: He places Himself above all the prophets, even above John the greatest of the prophets, as Him to whom all the prophets look forward. If He calls Himself Messiah, He fills that term, by doing so, with a deeper significance, dwelling ever on the unique relation of Messiah to God as his representative and His Son. Nor is He satisfied to represent Himself merely as standing in a unique relation to God: He proclaims Himself to be the recipient of the divine fullness, the sharer in all that God has (Matt. 11:28). He speaks freely of Himself indeed as God's Other, the manifestation of God on earth, whom to have seen was to have seen the Father also, and who does the work of God on earth. He openly claims divine prerogatives — the reading of the heart of man, the forgiveness of sins, the exercise of all authority in heaven and earth. Indeed, all that God has and is He asserts Himself to have and be; omnipotence, omniscience, perfection belong as to the one so to the other. Not only does He perform all divine acts; His self-consciousness coalesces with the divine consciousness. If His followers lagged in recognizing His deity, this was not because He was not God or did not sufficiently manifest His deity. It was because they were foolish and slow of heart to believe what lay patently before their eyes.

The Great Proof

The Scriptures gives us evidence enough, then, that Christ is God. But the Scriptures are far from giving us all the evidence we have. There is, for example, the revolution which Christ has wrought in the world. If, indeed, it were asked what the most convincing proof of the deity of Christ is, perhaps the best answer would be, just Christianity. The new life He has brought into this world; the new creation which He has produced by His life and work in the world; here are at least His most palpable credentials.

Take it objectively. Read such a book as Harnack's "The Expansion of Christianity," or such an one as Von Dobschutz's "Christian Life in the Primitive Church" — neither of which allows the deity of Christ — and then ask, Could these things have been wrought by power less than divine? And then remember that these things were not only wrought in that heathen world two thousand years ago, but have been wrought over again every generation since; for Christianity has reconquered the world to itself each generation. Think of how the Christian proclamation spread, eating its way over the world like fire in the grass of a prairie. Think how, as it spread, it transformed lives. The thing, whether in its objective or in its subjective aspect, were incredible, had it not actually occurred. "Should a voyager," says Charles Darwin, "chance to be on the point of shipwreck on some unknown coast, he will most devoutly pray that the lesson of the missionary may have reached thus far. The lesson of the missionary is the enchanter's wand." Could this transforming influence, undiminished after two millenniums, have proceeded from a mere man? It is historically impossible that the great movement which we call Christianity, which remains unspent after all these years, could have originated in a merely human impulse; or could represent today the working of a merely human force.

The Proof Within

Or take it subjectively. Every Christian has within himself the proof of the transforming power of Christ, and can repeat the blind man's syllogism: Why herein is the marvel that ye know not whence He is, and yet He opened my eyes. "Spirits are not touched to fine issues who are not finely touched." "Shall we trust," demands an eloquent reasoner, "the touch of our fingers, the sight of our eyes, the hearing of our ears, and not trust our deepest consciousness of our higher nature — the answer of conscience, the flower of spiritual gladness, the glow of spiritual love? To deny that spiritual experience is as real as physical experience is to slander the noblest faculties of our nature. It is to say that one half of our nature tells the truth, and the other half utters lies. The proposition that facts in the spiritual region are less real than facts in the physical realm contradicts all philosophy." the transformed hearts of Christians, registering themselves "in gentle tempers, in noble motives, in lives visibly lived under the empire of great aspirations" — these are the ever-present proofs of the divinity of the Person from whom their inspiration is drawn.

The supreme proof to every Christian of the deity of his Lord is then his own inner experience of the transforming power of his Lord upon the heart and life. Not more surely does he who feels the present warmth of the sun know that the sun exists, than he who has experienced the re-creative power of the Lord know Him to be his Lord and his God. Here is, perhaps we may say the proper, certainly we must say the most convincing, proof to every Christian of the deity of Christ; a proof which he cannot escape, and to which, whether he is capable of analysing it or drawing it out in logical statement or not, he cannot fail to yield his sincere and unassailable conviction. Whatever else he may or may not be assured of, he knows that his Redeemer lives. Because He lives, we shall live also — that was the Lord's own assurance. Because we live, He lives also — that is the ineradicable conviction of every Christian heart.

R.A. Torrey ed. - 'The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth' Volume 2, Exposition 10 (B.B. Warfield).

32.03.07.01 Jesus eternally exists with God

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John 1:1-2

"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the
beginning with God
"

This passage asserts that in the beginning existed the Word (Logos). This Word is further made clear that it is Jesus in John 1:14-15 "made flesh, and dwelt among us... John bare witness of him". Our point here is that "beginning" is before creation. This is obviously in view, a pre-creation world or existence of God. There are three assertions here: (1) The word was from the beginning, (2) the word was with God, (Greek pros or before, or face to face with. Pros means equality or before on an equal footing or basis) (3) the Word was God. There is a co-existence of the Word and God. We coexist with God, but not from the beginning of all things. Furthermore, this "Word" person is clearly declared to be "God." Whatever God is, this "Word" is that. As I said, John 1:14-15 makes clear that this "Word" is Jesus Christ.

Additional Note on the New World Translation of the Bible (of the Jehovah's Witnesses) - The NWT places a most disrupting indefinite article "a" before the word God in this verse, making it read "the Word was a god". The additional change of a lower case "g" makes this a very clear reading that their translators believe that Jesus is not God, fully in the most fullest sense of the word. Indeed a study into their doctrine shows that they believe Jesus is "the son of God" which for them is not sharing the very essence and substance of God the Father, Jehovah (the Almighty). The key point to see in this issue of the article in John 1:1 is that the Jehovah's Witnesses predetermine before approaching the Scriptures that Jesus is not God, and on that basis they slant everything to agree with this predisposition even though the evidence against it is great. They reason, God cannot be "with God" or beside himself. Those who accept the doctrine of the Trinity well understand this is completely possible, but those who refuse the doctrine of the Trinity have to twist what the Scriptures actually say. Remember that the JWs always present themselves as the only valid interpreter of Scriptures, and they are the "best Bible students" there are. They are never wrong, well, except in setting dates constantly, and doctrinal points of mammoth value like this one, and well, they are also wrong in just about everything else.

First of all, let's start by declaring that in a sense, the adding of indefinite articles to nouns is a valid thing to do in Greek. There is no indefinite articles ("a" or "an") in Greek, so one must be added as needed in order to make the translation smooth. But in this particular case, it confuses more than clarifies anything. Whenever you have a construction of A=B, where two things are logically joined by the verb of being, we need to understand what that communicates. When I say, "the apple is red", I am using the word "red" as a predicate adjective, and I am attributing the quality of "red" to the apple. If I use a noun after the verb, then it is a predicate noun. "Chester is a cat." We freely insert the indefinite article ("a" or "an") as needed to make the sentence flow smoothly. But in analyzing the matter, Chester has all the qualities of whatever a cat is. That is the construction. In Greek as well as English, the predicate noun is "God", and whatever God is, the Word is that thing.

A Greek scholar by the name of Colwell formulated a rule which states that a definite predicate nominative never takes an article when it precedes the verb as we find in John 1:1. To defend his point the student is asked to insert the indefinite article "a" before "God" in these passages with the same grammatical structure, and they obviously do not make good sense: Matthew 5:9; 6:24; Luke 1:35, 78; 2:40; John 1:6, 12, 13, 18; 3:2, 21; 9:16, 33; Romans 1.7, 17, 18; 1 Corinthians 1:30; 15:10; Philippians 2.11, 13; Titus 1:1. This method of adding the "a" is not done in their version Matthew 5:9; 6:24; Luke 1:35, 78; John 1:6, 12,13, 18; Romans 1:7, 17, etc. Another Greek scholar is A.T. Robertson, which the Jehovah's Witnesses twist one of his quotes to support themselves. They quote Robertson, "among the ancient writers ho theos was used of the god of absolute religion in distinction from the mythological gods." (quoted from page 776 of the appendix to New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures). But in the following sentence in Robertson's work, he continues, "In the New Testament, however, while we have pros ton theon (John 1:1,2) it is far more common to find simple theos, especially in the Epistles." The point is that NT writers frequently used the simple theos (God) in reference to the true God far more frequently that for false gods. (See for example the following Matthew 4:3, 4; 12:28; 28:43; Luke 20:37, 38; John 3:2; 13:3; Acts 5:29, 30; Romans 1:7, 8, 17-19; 2:16, 17; 3:5, 22, 23; 4:2, 3, etc.). Therefore the Greek would more fully back the renderings, "the Word was God" or "the Word was Divine".

If John was declaring Jesus to "a god" but not the true God, then the entire flow of his Gospel would be a contradiction to this point. John is declaring him to be the very God incarnate. The point is that John is declaring Jesus the Word to be divinity. Now which kind of divinity is John asserting that Jesus is? Is he condemning Jesus as being a false god, someone who pretends to be the true God when he isn't? Or is John presenting Jesus as the true God. This can only be answered honestly as the true God. Within this first chapter, John identifies Jesus has being the source of life and light, which is only given or assigned to the True God, never to a false deity. John 1:6 says that God sent John the Baptist to bear witness of Jesus the Word. Is this a condemnation of Jesus by John the Baptist or a positive endorsement? John testified to Jesus' deity. John says that the world was made by him (John 1:10) which again reinforces the conclusion that the Word is Jesus, and he is the creator. Can it be possible that a false god created the world? We cannot allow the use of "god" as being a god inferior to the True God for any created angel. The term "god" (small g) is always used with idea of a false god, opposing the True God. Moreover the Apostle John clearly links Jesus' glory as "the glory as of the only begotten of the Father" (John 1:14). How can you construe this as dealing with Jesus as a "false god" or an "inferior god"? As a false god, or inferior god, Jesus would dwell in the bosom of the Father (John 1:18) and declare the Father to us? John 1:29 says that Jesus takes away the sins of the world. Only God can forgive sins. Our only conclusion is that in studying the tenor of the Gospel of John (as well as the entire New Testament) we can only conclude that John was presenting Jesus Christ as God incarnate. He was not condemning or denouncing a false God, nor did he choose to use the concept of an "angel", a heavenly created being, but he chose to use the word "God", the very same word that he otherwise uses for the one and True God. Even though this word theos God is also used a very few times in the New Testament for a false god, our point has to stand that the Apostle John is presenting Jesus as the true God, and not as a false God.

Indeed the Jehovah's Witness digs himself a deep hole when he tries to rip deity from Jesus Christ in this verse. The point is that they reject the concept of the Trinity as being pagan, and as a consequence, they deny the personality of the Holy Spirit, attribute all references to the true God to the Father, and demote Jesus to the status of a spiritual created being, an angel. The point is that the Jehovah's Witnesses are correct when they insist on Monotheism, because there is only one true God. But the hole gets deeper when they refuse the explanation of the Trinity. We ask the JW if there is only one true God? They will answer correctly yes. We then ask them on the basis of this verse if Jesus is that one true God? They will answer either no, or that he is the son of that one True God (Jehovah, or the Almighty in their terms). If Jesus is not the one true God, but a being lesser than God Jehovah, God the Father, God the Almighty, then what kind of god (notice the smaller case "g" is what they want to use), then what kind of god is Jesus? What is not Jehovah, the true God is a false god (here the smaller case "g" is now justified). If Jesus is not fully God in every aspect, essence and sense, then Jesus is a false god? They refuse to admit that because they would be branded as heretics so openly and obviously.

This is then their difficulty. They want to demote Jesus to something less than fully being God, and by doing so, they put Jesus into a Limbo between a celestial angelic (created) creature, or being a false god inferior to God the Father, Jehovah. There is no place where they are trying to place Jesus. Jesus is either fully God, or Jesus is not God at all, and this makes the presentation of the Scripture and Jesus' own belief about himself being God as a mess.

Our conclusion then is that the New World Translation mistranslates this verse inserting the idea that Jesus the Word is a lesser god than the True God, and that is not taught either by this verse nor by the Bible in general. It is a bad and misleading translation that destroys the concept of the Word being eternal, and having the full quality of God, whatever "God" is, the Word is that thing.

HOW TO ANSWER THE JEHOVAH'S WITNESS ON JOHN 1:1 - There is a very simple answer to the JWs here. (1) Ask them to read John 1:1, and then ask them, is this God Jehovah Almighty or a lesser being? They will answer that he is a lesser being that God the Father, Jehovah, Almighty. Probably their answer that it is the Son of God (which to them is a lesser being). (2) Ask them if the Word here is Jesus. They will probably respond "yes", and then read John 1:14. This clearly establishes that the Word is Jesus Christ. (3) Now ask them if they are politheists (believe in multiple gods). They will quickly say no. Jehovah is one (Deu 6:4 "Hear O Israel, The our God is one Lord". Mark 12:32 "for there is one God; and there is none other but he" Eph 4:6 "One God and Father of all"). Ask if John is condemning Jesus for being this "god" lesser than God the Father. Obviously he is not condemning Jesus in his being and ministry but is presenting him as the Saviour. (4) Now conclude, with the point that we are not politheists like the JWs holding to two true Gods, but rather insist in the doctrine of the Trinity, which is the Trinity position teaches there is only 1 true God that exists in three persons, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Read through the rest of the first chapter of John, and note the following verses 1:6 John bears witness to Jesus Christ, 1:10 Jesus is light and life, two concepts which belong exclusively to the true God, and never to false gods. 1:14 says Jesus shows us the glory of God the Father. Can a false god do this? Cannot only the true God have this glory? John 1:29 says Jesus forgives sins, which is again a quality of only the true God (Mark 2:7; Luke 7:49).

Prov 8:22-31

Prov 8:22 "The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old. 23 I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was 30 Then I was by him, as one brought up with him: and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always before him."

The key to understanding Proverbs is to first grasp that the wisdom which Proverbs speaks of is in a sense eternal salvation. To be wise, is to choose life the paths that lead to life, and reject death and the paths that lead to death. That being understood, we see proverbs takes a very different "twist" here in personifying wisdom as being eternal, ever dwelling with God. We find the same language as John 1:1 here as a being that exists beside or with God. This is a hard passage of Scripture, but we find it hard see how this can be referring to anything or anyone else except a divine being which is Jesus Christ.

Titus 2:13

Tit 2:13 "Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;"

You can only take this verse one of two ways. First (the correct way) is to interpret the "and" as a renaming of "God" (i.e. consider it "even"), and thus read "of the great God even our Saviour Jesus Christ". The second way to interpret this verse is to take God as referring to God the Father, and read it as "the great God (Jehovah, or God the Father) and our Saviour Jesus Christ". The second way is incorrect, because God the Father will not return in the glorious appearing with Jesus Christ. This is simply an unbiblical teaching that has no basis whatsoever. The Bible always represents God the Father as staying in heaven until after the events of Revelation when God destroys the present universe and makes a new heavens and earth, and God the Father with all in heaven at that time will descend to the new heavens and the new earth.

 

32.03.07.02 Jesus is the "Son of God"

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The Jehovah's Witnesses turn the phrase, "Son of God" to mean someone who is inferior to, and after (created) the Father. This is not valid in the light of the teaching of Scripture. Some people wish to make this a minor issue of no importance. 1 John 4:15 it says, "Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwelleth in him and he in God". In other words, our confession of Jesus as our Savior which opens salvation to us is specifically a confession of the man Jesus to be the Deity, the Son of God. In Peter's interchange with Christ, he says...

Mat 16:16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.
Mat 16:17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.
Mat 16:18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

Christ asserts that Peter's confession of Jesus as the "Son of God" is the foundation of the Church.

If this confession of Jesus as the "Son of God" is so importance as to hinge salvation upon it, then we have understand and place proper importance on the true meaning of this phrase, "the Son of God."

32.03.07.02A What does the phrase "son of something" mean?

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The phrase "Son of God" occurs in 46 verses in the New Testament (plus an adjective before God in Mark 5:7; John 6:69), and only in Dan 3:25 in the OT.

Consider these phrases:

Num 23:19 "God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man that he should repent"
1Sam 20:30 "thou son of the perverse rebellious woman".
1Sam 25:17 "for he is such a son of Belial, that a man cannot speak to him"
Eccl 10.17 "Blessed art thou, O land, when thy king is the son of nobles"
Jer 49:18 "Sodom and Gommorrah... no man shall abide there, neither shall a son of man dwell in it"
Eze 2:1 "he said unto me, Son of man"

This small selection of OT verses where "son of somebody or something" is used shows us that the person who is the son has the character or essence of the father.

The phrase "son of something" is commonly used in the Bible to indicate that a person has the character and essence of someone or something else. If this is a person, for example King David, then the "son of David" means that the person is in the blood line of David, one of his sons. The idea being is that a son has the same character, quality, and essence of his father. When the Bible uses the phrase "son of God" it means that the person (Jesus) has the essence and being of the Father. What the Father is (God), so is His Son (God).

"Besides, it is forgotten, when such language (Son of Man, Son of God) is used, that in biblical phrase the name Son of God supposes nothing which Gen 6:2, Job 1:6; 2.1; Ps 82:6; Hos 1:10; Mat 5:9; Luke 6:35; 20:36; Gal 3:26

We will now consider other scriptures that support this truth. Here it is necessary to find scriptures where the abstract concept of sonship is the subject matter. It is not sufficient to look at places where the name "Son of God" is mentioned because, as we have seen, it is common to identify a person by a name or title even when referring to occasions when the person did not possess that designation. All the scriptures which say that the Father sent the Son do not prove to those who hold the temporal sonship theory that the Lord was the Son before He was sent, because, they say, the Divine Persons were not known by any distinct names before the incarnation, and therefore can only be referred to by the names they took afterwards.

Hebrews 5: 8. "Though He were Son". There is no definite article before Son; it is characteristic, and the relationship of Sonship is the prominent thought. "Though He were Son, yet learned He obedience". As the Son, the experience of obedience was unknown to Him, and so He learned what that experience was by the things that He suffered. In this passage we see that the idea of obedience and subjection was foreign to His Sonship. This is the opposite to the doctrine of temporal sonship which maintains that His Sonship is to be identified with subjection. No, it is not as the Son that He learned obedience, but in spite of His being such. The reason a man is subject and inferior to his father in human relationships is that the son is always the junior, the father obviously being born first. To argue from this that the Lord's Sonship denotes subjection is plainly wrong for there can be no seniority between Divine Persons. It is another example of trying to understand the Infinite by a comparison with the finite.

Now turn to John 1: 14. The literal translation is "We beheld His glory, the glory of an only begotten with a father". The glory is that of the abstract relationship rather than that of the Person Himself, that is to say, the glory in this passage is specifically that of His Sonship. This glory shone through the veil of His flesh so that His disciples recognised it. It was His Divine glory.

This will be immediately challenged by those who deny His eternal Sonship. They will say that it is His moral glory, which He had as the Perfect Man. We will, therefore, test this by searching the Scriptures. When those who had to do with Him in His life here were constrained to confess Him as the Son of God, what made them do so? Was it His moral glory or His Divine glory? Let us look at the incidents involved.

(1) Nathanael (John 1: 49) confessed Him as the Son of God and King of Israel. It was His omniscience that opened His eyes. The Lord had shown that He knew some secret that only Nathaniel could have known.

(2) The disciples in the boat. (Matthew 14: 33). The Lord had just shown His Divine power as the Creator and Sustainer of all things, walking. on the water and stilling the wind and the waves. Here we have Him as the omnipotent One.

(3) Martha (John 11: 27). The Lord had just revealed Himself as the Source of Life. Only God is the Source of Life. All other beings receive their life through Him.

(4) The man blind from birth (John 9: 35-38). Here the man is told directly from the Lord Who He is. It is the man's reaction that is noteworthy as he immediately worships the Son of God showing that he recognised His Deity; for the Lord accepted his worship as offered intelligently. We can contrast this with the man in Matthew 19: 16-17 who said "Good Master". At once the Lord checked him, because he had ascribed something to Him that only applied to God, without realising that the One he was speaking to was indeed God.

(5) The Centurion (Matthew 27: 54; Mark 15: 39). Here the reasons for the centurion's confession are plainly stated. In Matthew it was due to the severe earthquake, the rending of the rocks and the opening of the tombs. In Mark it is specifically stated that it was due to the Lord's shouting with a loud voice just before He gave up His spirit. This was remarkable to the centurion who had no doubt seen large numbers of such executions. A man crucified gets weaker and weaker until he cannot speak above a whisper. Here was One who could shout with a loud voice just before He died, showing supernatural strength. It was, therefore, not His moral glory that convinced the centurion, but His Divine glory, as was the case in all the foregoing cases.

We will refer to Peter's great confession in Matthew 16: 16 and John 6: 69 later.

We are therefore fully justified in asserting that the Lord's Sonship denotes His Deity and does not pertain to His lowly dependence and obedience as the Perfect Man. A possible reason why some think that the glory of John 1: 14 is moral and not Divine, is the words that immediately follow: "full of grace and truth". We are sure, however, that the Authorised Version is correct in putting the clause "and we beheld His glory, the glory of the Only Begotten of the Father" in brackets. The words "full of grace and truth" refer to the statement before the parenthesis: "the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us". The parenthesis is put in to show that in spite of the veil of flesh, the Divine glory shone through for His own to see. In saying all this we are not wishing to infer that moral glory is not included in Divine glory for "God is Light". The idea that we are opposing is that it was exclusively His moral glory as seen in manhood.
  Dronsfield, W.R.  - Eternal Son of the Father, Chapter 2

32.03.07.02B The phrase "Son of God" is exclusively used of Jesus as God

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Sons [ben H1121] of God
"Sons of God" = Spirit celestial beings? - Gen 6:4 (Note see Luke 20:36 for a possible clarification)

Children [G5207 huios] of God
Mat 5:9 "peacemakers" in beattitudes; [G3700 huios]
Luke 20:36 those participating in the resurrection "neither can they die any more: for they are equal to the angels; and are the children [G5207 huios] of God, being the children of the resurrection"
Gal 3:26 For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus.

Children [G5043 teknon] of God
John 11:52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.
Rom 8:16 The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God:
Rom 8:21 Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.
Rom 9:8 That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.
1Jn 3:10 In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil: whosoever doeth not righteousness is not of God, neither he that loveth not his brother.
1Jn 5:2 By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God, and keep his commandments.

Use of the Phrase "Son of God"

"Son of God" is used 48 times in 47 verses (Dan. 3:25; Matt. 4:3, 6; 8:29; 14:33; 26:63; 27:40, 43, 54; Mk. 1:1; 3:11; 15:39; Lk. 1:35; 3:38; 4:3, 9, 41; 8:28; 22:70; Jn. 1:34, 49; 3:18; 5:25; 9:35; 10:36; 11:4, 27; 19:7; 20:31; Acts 8:37; 9:20; Rom. 1:4; 2 Co. 1:19; Gal. 2:20; Eph. 4:13; Heb. 4:14; 6:6; 7:3; 10:29; 1 Jn. 3:8; 4:15; 5:5, 10, 12f, 20; Rev. 2:18).

Mat 8:29 the demons "what have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?" (Judgment)
Mat 14:33 "came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God" (Worship)
Mat 16:16 "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God" (Being Christ)
Mat 26:63 "I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God." (Deity)
Mat 27:40 "If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross" (God Power)
Mat 27:43 "He trusted in God; let him deliver him now... for he said, I am the Son of God" (Special relationship with God)
Luke 1.35 "that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God" (divinity)
John 1:34 "I bare record that this is the Son of God" (Something noteworthy)
John 1:49 "Rabbi thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel" (Ruler of God's people)
John 3:18 "condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God." (Perdition for not believing Jesus is Son of God)
John 5:25 "the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and they that hear shall live" (power to resurrect the dead)
John 10:36 "Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God?" (Deity)
John 19:7 "by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God" (Deity)
John 20:31 "that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name" (Salvation)
Acts 8:37 "If thou believest... I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God." (Salvation)
Heb 4:14 "a great high priest... Jesus the Son of God" (Heavenly Intercession and Priesthood)
1John 5:12 "He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life" (Salvation or Eternal Perdition)

Conclusion

Even though the phrase "sons of God" (huios) is used in the New Testament, it would seem to refer to those who are born again Christians. But the phrase "Son of God" has a very different connotation because it is clearly used as though the understanding is deity, the Messiah.

John 5:18 Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God.
John 5:19 Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.
John 5:20 For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doeth: and he will shew him greater works than these, that ye may marvel.
John 5:21 For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will.
John 5:22 For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son:
John 5:23 That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent him.
John 5:24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life.
John 5:25 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live.

The point here is that Jesus clearly used the concept that he is the Son of God. At the end he actually uses this phrase to describe himself. The Jews understood this teaching as making Jesus to be God, fully equal with God, Deity. When the Jews use the phrase "son of", it did not generally mean subordination but rather equality with and identity with the nature of somebody. When the Jews understood his teaching as being equal to God, Jesus did not deny this conclusion and correct their teaching, but rather he defends it. This is situation is again repeated in John 10:30-39.

32.03.07.02C Jesus' Sonship means inherit power, right, and authority

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It is very important to see that the Scriptures does not use the concept "Son of God" in Hebrew basically, but does use it in Greek. In Greek we have several words for a child. Brephos is a child that is still in the womb, or recently having been born. The focus is on the child's relationship and closeness to his birth. Paul refers to Timothy's learning of Scriptures from his childhood 2 Tim 3:14-15 and uses this word here. Another Greek word for child is nepios which is generally used for children at or around age two. The word means without speech, but making noise, and is the word for our English "toddlers". Paul uses this concept in Eph 4:14 when Paul exhorts them NOT TO BE THESE KIND OF CHILDREN. Toddlers are known for being unstable and falling down frequently, and they frequently talk a lot and say nothing, and they don't really know what they are doing. The word technon is a general word for child between brephos and nepios, and refers to a small child.

The phrase "son of God" is always a different Greek word, huios. This concept does not mean you are a minor child of somebody. It means you are the one who receives the inheritance and control over all that the father has. It means heir of everything. In Bible times, they were not very equable by our ideas today. Instead of a father splitting his goods equally between his children, one child got it all. That child took over the ranch, farm, business, of the father, and continued it essentially taking the father's place. That child had to continue to take care of his mother, as well as all of his brothers and unmarried and widow sisters. The sisters of this chosen child were to be taken care of much as he would care for his mother. They were not slaves, nor queens (not working). The brothers were people of importance in the business of the family, managing, and administrating things. Rom 8:17 indicates that the saved will be joint heirs with Christ, but our position with Christ is not going to be exactly equal with Christ. We will be in the administration of Christ, ruling with him, but we are never given equality with Christ.

 

32.03.07.02D Christ's unique relationship with God the Father

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John 1:18 "No man has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, He was explained Him" .

Torrey, RA - What the Bible Teaches#Subordination of the Son to the Father
Flavel - The Covenant of Redemption between the Father and the Redeemer (s)
Flavel - The amazing love of God in giving his own Son for us (s)

32.03.07.03 Jesus is the Christ, the Messiah of God

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One of the most important points of locking into the doctrine of the deity of Jesus Christ is understanding just what the office and mission of the Messiah was. Jesus was the Christ, the Messiah of the OT Jews. This Messiah was God Himself stepping down from heaven to partake of humanity so that He could effect salvation for mankind. This makes no sense if Jesus is not fully God. The mission of Jesus Christ was to save men. His conception and verbalization of this mission is seen in Luke 19:10 "For the Son of man came to seek and to save that which was lost." Jesus came to establish the "kingdom of God" on earth. This is not a philanthropic kingdom only, but is highly involved in and based in the redemption of man's soul. Entrance to the kingdom of God was only through being spiritual born "anew" (John 3:3), and conditioned on repentance from sin (Luke 5:32). To accomplish this mission Jesus had to give up his pre-existent state and take on himself humanity. Having taken on humanity, he had to give up his life to sinful men. The concept of the "Good Shepherd" that dies in saving his sheep in John 10 is this idea. Moreover his life was given as a "ransom paid" for humanity. "For the Son of man also came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many" Mark 10:45; Mat 20:28; 26:28. All of this focuses on Christ's mission which was clearly in his own mind a mission that centered on his own sacrifice, from his life on the cross to his pre-existent state of glory.

Bibliography:
Olin Alfred Curtis
(1850-1918) - The Christian Faith chapter 16 (1905)

32.03.07.04 Jesus is God

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John 20:28 "My God"

Joh 20:28 And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God.

This shows clearly that Thomas understood that Jesus was God. The ability to go through what Jesus went through, fulfill the prophecies about the Messiah, claim to be the Messiah, and in the end, relive through the resurrection led Thomas to conclude that Jesus has to be God. There is no other possible conclusion.

1Jn 5:20

1Jn 5:20 And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.

Here John identifies Jesus (the Son of God) and attributes to him the person who reveals to us "him that is true", in other words, God the Father. The statement "This is the true God" is a reference to the very God. "This" is a demonstrative pronoun which in Greek must agree with the closest noun to it of the same gender and number. The closest reference is "Son Jesus Christ" immediately before it.

Isaiah 9:6

Isa 9:6 "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace."

The important parts of this verse we want to focus on is that the first part of this verse clearly identifies with the birth of Jesus Christ. One of the titles that God gives Jesus here is "The Mighty God". In Genesis the Hebrew word for "mighty God" is "El Shaddai", but here the Hebrew word is "El Gibbor", the God of Power.

This passage is quoted in Matthew 1:22-23...

Mat 1:22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,
Mat 1:23 Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.

The Apostle Matthew very clearly uses this verse in application to the events of the birth of Jesus, and he interprets for us the name Emmanuel, "God with us." The clear meaning here is that the child is God, compare with Isaiah 9:6. There are only two possible interpretations of this phrase, (1) that the child given is the baby Jesus, God incarnate, or (2) that God is with and among his people not referring in any way to the newborn child being deity. If the second were true, then why would the verse have anything to do with the birth of Jesus? Simply put, it wouldn't. The entire verse and application of the verse to the newborn baby Jesus would be illogical and out of place.

32.03.08 NT Testimonies to the Deity of Jesus Christ

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The NT apostles and disciples captured the mission and person of Jesus Christ. Here we see a multitude of testimonies but all of them center on a few central key concepts that was widely shared, and emphatically preached by the NT Church.

Essentially the situation was this: First, the one nerve of the whole matter is that these Christian men had been saved from sin. Seize that fact with all your strength, or you will never comprehend this mighty battle. Second, this salvation from sin they absolutely associated with Jesus Christ and his atonement. Third, they had inherited their Saviour's own interpretation of the relation existing between his redemptive work and the intrinsic peculiarity of his person. Fourth, this consciousness of our Lord they found essentially repeated in the whole body of apostolic experience, the repetition gaining in force and completeness from first to last.

Fifth, this inheritance from Christ and his apostles exactly fitted and satisfied their own Christian consciousness which was resultant from their own Christian experience. Sixth, out of this combination of features they had gained a conception of Christ which they spontaneously expressed by worshiping him even as they worshiped God. This is a fair practical statement of the inner situation; and it all can be gathered up into a sentence: While up to this time they had no metaphysical view (the most of them) of Jesus Christ, yet, in their redemptional experience, they so regarded him that their hearts went out to him in full worship. Olin Alfred Curtis (1850-1918) - The Christian Faith chapter 16 (1905)

"Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me" (John 5:39). This is the last witness which our Lord cites, and, for us, it is the most important. John has long since passed away; the "words" of Christ are no longer before men’s eyes; the voice of the Father is no more heard; but the testimony of the Scriptures abides. The Scriptures testified of Christ, and affirmed His Deity. Their witness was the climax. The Holy Writings, given by inspiration of God, were the final court of appeal. What importance and authority does He attach to them! Beyond them there was no appeal: above them no higher authority: after them no further witness. It is blessed to note the order in which Christ placed the three witnesses to which He appealed in proof of His equality with God. First, there was the witness of His own Divine works. Second, there was the witness which the Father had borne to Him through the prophets. Third, there was the testimony of the Holy Scriptures, written by men moved by the Holy Spirit. Thus in these three witnesses there is a remarkable reference made to each of the three Persons in the Holy Trinity.

"Search the Scriptures" was both an appeal and a command. It is to be read, as in our A.V., in the imperative mood. The proof for this is as follows: First, the usage of the word. The Bible is its own interpreter. If scripture be compared with scripture its meaning will be plain. In John 7:52 we find the only other occurrence of the Greek word (ereunao) in John’s Gospel, here translated "search"; "They answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee? Search, and look: for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet." When the Pharisees said to Nicodemus "Search and look," they were bidding him search the Scriptures. Thus, in both instances, the word has the imperative and not the indicative force. Again; to give the verb here the indicative force in John 5:39 is to make the first half of the verse pointless; but to render it in the imperative gives it a meaning in full accord with what precedes and what follows. "For in them ye think ye have eternal life." The pronoun "ye" is emphatic. The word "think" does not imply it was a doubtful point, or merely a matter of human opinion. It is rather as though Christ said unto them, ‘This is one of the articles of your faith: ye think (are persuaded), and rightly so; then act on it. Search the Scriptures (in which you are assured there is eternal life) and you will find that they, too, testify of Me.’ The word "think" does not imply a doubt, but affirms an assurance. (Cf. Matthew 22:42, etc.).

"Search the Scriptures." Here is a command from the Lord. The authority of His Godhood is behind it. "Search," He says; not merely "read." The Greek word is one that was used in connection with hunting. It referred to the hunter stalking game. When he discovered the tracks of an animal, he concentrated all his attention on the ground before him, diligently searching for other marks which would lead him to his quarry. In a similar way, we are to study God’s Word, minutely examining each expression, tracing every occurrence of it, and ascertaining its meaning from its usage. The grand motive for such earnest study is, that the Scriptures "testify" of Christ. May writer and reader give daily heed to this Divine admonition, to "Search" the Scriptures.
  Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 19.

32.03.08.01 Christ's Witness not Independent of the Father

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As we pass from chapter to chapter it is ever needful to keep in mind the character and scope of this fourth Gospel. Its chief design is to present the Divine glories of Christ. It was written, no doubt, in its first and local application to refute the heresies concerning the person of the Lord Jesus which flourished toward the end of the first century. Less than fifty years after the Lord departed from these scenes and returned to His Father in heaven, the horrible system of Gnosticism, which denied the essential Deity of the Savior, was spread widely throughout those lands where the Gospel had been preached. Whilst it was generally allowed that Christ was a unique personage, yet, that He was "equal with God" was denied by many. Nor is that very surprising when we stop to think how much there was which would prove a stumbling block to the natural man.

Outwardly, to human eyes, Christ appeared to be an ordinary man. Born into a peasant family; cradled amid the most humble surroundings; carried away into Egypt to escape the cruel edict of Herod, and returning later, only to grow to manhood’s estate in obscurity; working for years, most probably, at the carpenter’s bench—what was there to denote that He was the Lord of Glory? Then, as He began His public ministry, appearing not as the great of this world are accustomed to appear, with much pomp and ostentation; but, instead, as the meek and lowly One. Attended not by an imposing retinue of angels, but by a few poor and unlettered fishermen. His claims rejected by the religious leaders of that day; the tide of popular opinion turning against Him; the very ones who first hailed Him with their glad Hosannas, ending by crying, "Away with him: crucify him." Finally, nailed in shame to the cruel tree; silent to the challenge to descend from it; and there breathing out His spirit—that, that was the last the world saw of Him.

And now by the year A. D. 90 almost all of His original disciples would be dead. Of the twelve apostles who had accompanied Him during His public ministry, only John remained. On every side were teachers denying the Deity of Christ. There was thus a real need for an inspired, authoritative, systematic presentation of the manifold glories of His divine person. The Holy Spirit therefore moved John—the one who of all the early disciples knew Christ best, the one whose spiritual discernment was the keenest, the one who had enjoyed the inestimable privilege of leaning on the Master’s bosom to write this fourth Gospel. In it abundant evidence is furnished to satisfy the most credulous of the Deity of the Lord Jesus. It is to the written Word God now refers all who desire to know the truth concerning His beloved Son, and in it are presented the "many infallible proofs" for the Godhood of our blessed Redeemer. Chiefest of these are to be found in John’s Gospel.

In the chapter we are now studying we find record of a remarkable miracle performed by the Lord Jesus which signally displayed His Divine power. He had singled out a most hopeless ease and by a word had made whole, instantly, one that had suffered with an infirmity for thirty and eight years. Because this miracle had been performed on the Sabbath day, the Jews persecuted the Lord Jesus. In gracious condescension the Lord replied to their criticism by giving them a sevenfold declaration of His equality with the Father. This we examined at some length in maintaining it, so immeasurable is the blessing when received, so tremendous is the stake involved in its loss, God has vouchsafed us the amplest, clearest, fullest evidence.

"If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true" (John 5:31). Every commentator we have consulted expounds this verse as follows: The witness which I have just borne to Myself would not be valid unless it is supported by that of others. The law of God requires two or three witnesses for the truth to be established. Therefore if I bear witness of Myself, says Christ, and there is none to confirm it, it is "not true," i.e., it is not convincing to others. But we most humbly dissent from any such interpretation. The word of a mere man does need confirmation: but not so that of God the Son. To affirm or suggest that His witness must be ratified by the testimony of others so as to establish its validity, is deeply dishonoring to Him. And we are both amazed and saddened that such a view should be put forth by many excellent men.

"If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true." The key to this verse lies in what has gone before. Divorce it from its context, and we must expect to find it difficult; but examine it in our last chapter; now, in the passage before us, we find that He closed by bringing in the evidence of various unimpeachable witnesses who testified to the veracity of His claims. In view, then, of what is to be found here, there can be no excuse whatever for ignorance, still less for unbelief, upon this all-important subject. So bright was Christ’s glory, so concerned was the Father in the light of its setting, and all becomes clear. This verse simply reiterates in another form what we find the Savior saying at the beginning of the previous verse, can of mine own self do nothing" means, I cannot act independently of the Father: I am so absolutely one with Him that His will is My will; mine, His. So, now, He declares, "If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true." He speaks hypothetically—"if." "I bear witness of myself" means, If I bear witness independently of the Father. In such a case, "my witness is not true." And why? Because such would be insubordination. The Son can no more bear witness of Himself independently of the Father, than He can of Himself work independently of the Father.

"There is another that beareth witness of me; and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is true" (John 5:32). This explains the previous verse and confirms our interpretation of it. The "other" who is here referred to as "bearing witness" of Him, is not John the Baptist, as some have strangely supposed, but the Father Himself. Reference, not appeal, is made to John in verses 33, 34. Observe now that our Lord did not here say, "There is One that beareth witness of me" and His witness is true, but "there is another that beareth witness of me." He would no more dissever the Father and His witness from Himself, than He would bear witness to Himself independently of the Father. This is strikingly confirmed by what we read in John 8: "The Pharisees therefore said unto him, Thou bearest record of thyself; thy record is not true. Jesus answered and said unto them, Though I bear record of myself, yet my record is true... Ye judge after the flesh; I judge no man. And yet if I judge, my judgment is true: for I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent me" (verses 13-16).

"Ye sent unto John, and he bare witness unto the truth" (John 5:33). Here our Lord reminds "the Jews" (verse 16) how, when they had sent an embassy unto His forerunner (see John 1:19), that he "bear witness unto the truth." Notice the abstract form in which this is put. Christ did not say, "He bear witness unto me," but "unto the truth." This witness is recorded in John 1:20-27. First, John confessed that he was not the Christ, but simply "the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord." Then, he testified to the presence of One in their midst whom they knew not, One of whom he said, "He it is, who coming after me, is preferred before me, whose shoes latchet I am not worthy to unloose." Such was the Baptist’s witness to the delegates of these same Jews.

"But I receive not testimony from man: but these things I say, that ye might be saved" (John 5:34). The Son of God continues to occupy the same high ground from which He had spoken throughout this interview. "I receive not testimony from man" shows that He had not appealed to the witness of John in confirmation of His own declarations. His purpose was quite otherwise: "These things I say, that ye might be saved." The witness which John had borne to "the truth" was fitted to have a salutary effect on those who heard him. John’s testimony was a merciful concession which God had made to the need of Israel. Christ Himself did not stand in need of it; but they did. God sent His messenger before His Son to prepare the way for Him. His ministry was designed to arouse men’s attention and to produce in them a sense of their deep need of the One who was about to be manifested.

"But I receive not testimony from man." This word "receive" is explained to us in verse 44 where it is interchanged with "seek." It means to lay hold of, or grasp at. Christ would not bemean Himself by subpoening human witnesses. His claim to be equal with God rested on surer ground than the testimony of a man. But He had reminded these Jews of what John had said to their representatives on an earlier occasion, and this that they "might be saved," for salvation comes by believing God’s "witness unto the truth."

"He was a burning and a shining light: and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light" (John 5:35). This was most gracious of Christ. John had given faithful witness to the One who was to come after him; and now the Son of God bears witness to him. A beautiful illustration is this of the promise that if we confess Christ before men, so He will yet confess us before God. "A burning and shining light"—more correctly, "lamp," see R.V.—the Lord calls him. Burning inwardly, shining outwardly. John’s light had not been hid under a bushel, but it had shone "before men." Ah! dear reader, will the Savior be able to say of you, in a coming day, "He was a burning and shining lamp"? Is the light that is within thee "burning" or is it just flickering? Is your lamp "trimmed," and so "shining," or is it shedding but a feeble and sickly glow? Great is the need for burning and shining "lamps" in the world today. The shadows are fast lengthening, the darkness increases, and the "midnight" hour draws on apace. "And that, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep: for now is our salvation nearer than when we believed. The night is far spent, the day is at hand: let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light" (Rom. 13:11, 12).

"And ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light" (John 5:35). This provides us with an illustration of the stony-ground hearers of the parable of the Sower. Concerning this class Christ says, "But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it; Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while" (Matthew 13:20, 21). Such were these Jews: "for a season" they rejoiced in John’s light. But the difference between real believers and mere professors is not in how they begin but how they end. "He that endureth to the end shall be saved": enduring to the end is not a condition of salvation, but an evidence of it. So, again, when Christ says, "If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed:" continuing in Christ’s word is a proof that we are His disciples. We take it that which caused these Jews to "rejoice’’ for a season in John’s light, was the testimony which he bore to the Messiah, then about to appear. This was good news indeed, for to them this meant deliverance from the Roman yoke and the destruction of all their enemies. But when the Messiah was actually manifested He instead announced that He had come to save the lost, and when He demanded repentance and faith, their joy soon faded away.

"But I have greater witness than that of John: for the works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me" (John 5:36). Here is the first witness to which Christ appeals in proof of His Deity. His "works" bore unmistakable witness to Him. He gave hearing to the deaf, speech to the dumb, sight to the blind, cleansing to the leper, deliverance to the captives of the Devil, life to the dead. He walked the waves, stilled the wind, calmed the sea, He turned water into wine, cleansed the Temple single-handed, and fed a great multitude with a few loaves and fishes. And these miracles were performed by His own inherent power. To these works He now directs attention as furnishing proof of His Deity. Quite frequently did He appeal to His "works" as affording Divine testimony: see John 10:25, 38; 14:11; 15:24.
   Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 19.

32.03.09 OT References to the Deity of Jesus Christ

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The very name of "Jesus" means Jehovah is Salvation.

"And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape" (John 5:37). The miracles performed by our Lord were not the only nor the most direct evidence which proved His Deity. The Father Himself had borne witness. The majority of the commentators refer this to the baptism of Christ, when the Father’s voice declared, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." But we scarcely think this is correct. Immediately following, our Lord went on to say, "Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape." What, then, would be the force of Christ here appealing to the Father’s witness at the Jordan if these detractors of His had not heard that Voice? Personally, we think that Christ refers, rather, to the witness which the Father had borne to His Son through the prophets during Old Testament times. This seems to give more meaning to what follows—the Old Testament economy was characterized by an invisible God, neither His voice being heard, nor His shape seen.  Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 19.

"Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father: there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye trust. For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me" (John 5:45, 46). Our Lord concludes by intimating to these Jews that they would yet have to give an account of their rejection of Him before the tribunal of God, and there they would see as their accuser the great legislator of whom they boasted, but whose testimony they rejected. Here, then, was the final reason why they would not come to Him for life—they believed not the written Word of God.

"There is one that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye trust. For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me." How solemn and searching is this! If there is one thing those Jews thought they believed, it was Moses and his writings. They contended earnestly for the law: they venerated the name of Moses above almost all of their national heroes. They would have been ready to die for what Moses taught. And yet here is the Son of God solemnly declaring that these Jews did not believe Moses, and furnishing proof by showing that if they had really believed Moses’ writings they had believed in Christ, of whom Moses wrote. How terribly deceptive is the human heart! "There is a way that seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death" (Prov. 14:12). O, dear reader, make certain that you believe, really, savingly believe on the Son of God.

"But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?" (John 5:47). How this exposes the "Higher Critics!" If they believe not the writings of Moses, no matter what their ecclesiastical connections or religious professions, it is sure proof that they are unsaved men—men who have not believed in Christ. The Old Testament Scriptures are of equal authority with the teaching of Christ: they are equally the Word of God.
  Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 19.

32.03.09.01 Jesus is Lord of All

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"Jehovah" is the OT personal name for God. The word Adonai and Elohim are also other words generally identified with the one and only True God. All of these words are translated in the New Testament by the Greek word kurios, Lord.

Joh 12:37 But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him:
Joh 12:38 That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?
Joh 12:39 Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again,
Joh 12:40 He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.
Joh 12:41 These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory, and spake of him.

Isa 6:1 In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple.
Isa 6:2 Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly.
Isa 6:3 And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory.
Isa 6:4 And the posts of the door moved at the voice of him that cried, and the house was filled with smoke.
Isa 6:5 Then said I, Woe is me! for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips: for mine eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts.
Isa 6:9 And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not.
Isa 6:10 Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed.

 

32.03.10 The Perfect Holiness of Jesus Christ

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When we say that Jesus is the second Adam, it speaks of Jesus' fulfillment of all that man could have been if man did not sin. The Bible makes no special concessions in hiding the obvious and gross sins of the saints of God. From Moses fumbling errors and resulting exclusion from the promised land, to King David's sin with Uriah and Beth-Sheba, resulting in his later embarrassment by his own children, to Peter's denial of Christ at his trial, the Bible accurately tells us of the foibles and failures of God's children. This being the obvious tenor of God towards the sins and failings of His children, we see no sin in the life of Jesus Christ.

As the head of the human race, Jesus encapsulates both the holiness and purity of God, and yet he is the essence of man (weak and tempted as men).

32.03.11 The Miracles of Jesus Christ

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Contrary to the arguments many put forth to prove the deity of Jesus Christ, Jesus himself appealed to the miracles and works that he daily performed as evidence of his deity that could not be refuted. In two occasions, people came to Jesus asking if he were the Christ, the Messiah. His answer in both cases we the works which he performed were the undisputable testimony to his deity.

Mat 11:2 Now when John had heard in the prison the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples,
Mat 11:3 And said unto him, Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another?
Mat 11:4 Jesus answered and said unto them, Go and shew John again those things which ye do hear and see:
Mat 11:5 The blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them.

John 10:24 Then came the Jews round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou make us to doubt? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly.
John 10:25 Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believed not: the works that I do in my Father's name, they bear witness of me.

For many people, actually seeing or being touched personally in this ministry of Jesus was what answered this question for them.

John 6:14 Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, This is of a truth that prophet that should come into the world.
John 11:45 Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on him.

What is essential in this proof of Christ's deity is that Jesus Christ did miracles on a totally different basis than all the prophets before him. Jesus did these miracles from his own internal power (God-essence), and not by direct authority from God as a grant from the Father. The miraculous power of the prophets was always attributed to be the power of God that God had granted them to perform. For example, Elisha raising the Shumanite's son, he "prayed unto the Lord" and the child was restored to life (2Ki 4:33). To compare this power for God (generally or specifically coming from God the Father) to resurrect the dead, we have this set as parallel and equal to Jesus' power to do the same.

John 5:21 For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will.

This inherent power within Jesus went beyond Jesus himself exercising this power to include the ability of Jesus to commission others to do so also.

Mat 10:1 And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease.
Mat 10:8 Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils: freely ye have received, freely give.

Compare this with Acts 3:6 where Peter heals, and this is the first time the disciples exercised this power to do a miracle. Peter and John were imprisoned for this healing, and when they were questioned about it (Acts 4:5-10) they attributed it to what they had been commissioned by Jesus to do.

God never delegated to any human being the authority to confer on others the power to perform miracles, and no mere man ever possessed the power to work miracles of himself. Hence the very facts, if we are to believe the record, that Jesus Christ possessed the power to work miracles of himself and that he had the authority to delegate miraculous power to others, show beyond all controversy that he was divine, that he was God. Jerome, Thomas Jefferson (1859-) - The Christ, the Evidence of His Divinity reviewed from a Lawyers Standpoint page 19 (1917)

Luke 7:11 And it came to pass the day after, that he went into a city called Nain; and many of his disciples went with him, and much people.
Luke 7:12 Now when he came nigh to the gate of the city, behold, there was a dead man carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow: and much people of the city was with her.
Luke 7:13 And when the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep not.
Luke 7:14 And he came and touched the bier: and they that bare him stood still. And he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise.
Luke 7:15 And he that was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he delivered him to his mother.
Luke 7:16 And there came a fear on all: and they glorified God, saying, That a great prophet is risen up among us; and, That God hath visited his people.

Luke's commentary here is very interesting. Jesus raised the widow's dead son, and the commentary of the people which Luke mentions is "that God hath visited his people." (Luke 7:16). The people seeing the power of Jesus to heal and even resurrect the dead supported the deity of Jesus. Nobody except God incarnate could do what He did.

The late Bishop Ryle called attention to five things in connection with our Lord’s miracles. "First, their number: they were not a few only, but very many. Second, their greatness: they were not little, but mighty interferences with the ordinary course of nature. Third, their publicity: they were not done in a comer, but generally in open day, and before many witnesses, and often before enemies. Fourth, their character: they were almost always works of love, mercy and compassion, helpful and beneficient to man, and not merely barren exhibitions of power. Fifth, their direct appeal to man’s senses: they were visible, and would bear any examination. The difference between them and the boasted miracles of Rome, on all these points, is striking and conclusive." To these we might add two other features: Sixth, their artlessness. They were not staged mechanically: they happened in the natural course of our Lord’s ministry. There was nothing pre-arranged about them. Seventh, their efficacy. There was as much difference between the miracles of healing performed by Christ and those of His miserable imitators which are being so widely heralded in our day, as there is between His teaching and that given out by these pretenders who claim to heal in His name. Christ’s cures were instantaneous, not gradual; complete and perfect, not faulty and disappointing.

"The same works that I do, bear witness of me." Ere passing on to the next verse, we pause to apply these words to ourselves. Our works, too, bear witness of us. If ours are "dead works," wood, hay, and stubble which shall be burned up in the coming Day, that proves we are carnal, walking after the flesh; and such a witness will dishonor and grieve Him whose name we bear. But if we abound in "good works," this will show that we are walking after the spirit, and men (our fellow-believers) seeing our good works will glorify our Father which is in heaven. What, then, my reader, is the "witness" which your "works" are bearing? What the writer’s? Let us "be careful to maintain good works? (Titus 3:8).
   Arthur Pink - Exposition of the Gospel of John, Chapter 19.

32.03.12 Jesus receives Worship to himself.

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When we begin to examine the matter of worship, we meet with a very jealous God (Exo 34:14) who in no uncertain terms demands extremely that we reserve all our worship exclusively for God, and only for God.

God commands us to Worship Him

Psa 95:3 For the LORD is a great God, and a great King above all gods.
Psa 95:4 In his hand are the deep places of the earth: the strength of the hills is his also.
Psa 95:5 The sea is his, and he made it: and his hands formed the dry land.
Psa 95:6 O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the LORD our maker.

God prohibits us from worshipping anything which is not the Very True One and Only God

Mat 4:8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;
Mat 4:9 And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.
Mat 4:10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

Rom 1:25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.

God condemns those who presume to worship anything or anybody except God Himself.

God Commands all creation to Worship Jesus

Heb 1:6 And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.
Heb 1:7 And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire.
Heb 1:8 But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom.

This comes from the Messianic Psalm, Psalm 45, see Psa 45:6.

Jesus worshipped by people.

Jesus was worshipped by many in the Bible without any rebuke or condemnation on those people.

The Son is dishonored when he is assigned a lower place than that of the Father

John 5:23 That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent him.

"The Son is dishonored when he is assigned a lower place than that of the Father. Such dishonor to the Son is displeasing to the Father, and a ministry is vain indeed which, though sincere, advances under the displeasure of God." Chafer Systematic Theology Volume 5 page 8.

32.03.13 Heresies and Doctrinal Errors about Jesus Christ

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The problem with denying the deity of Jesus Christ is that once you rule out by blind faith that Jesus is not God, you do not know how to understand his being in any other way. Again we repeat the possible options, that he is a heavenly angel or messenger from God coming as a celestial being. The problem with this is that Jesus taught his unique position as deity, his authority, his person as special (the concept of Messiah or Christ is the Anointed One, the Special One), and his unique divine position as Redeemer. No angel can take these things upon himself unless he is God himself. This is essentially the position of the Gnostics and Mormons.

If we consider Jesus to be just a man, greatly endowed by God with powers then we see that again Jesus' statements show that He understood otherwise, and the NT authors of Scripture also taught otherwise. This is the position of the Unitarians.

Arius and the Arians (Jehovah's Witnesses also) take the position that Jesus was the first and greatest of God's creatures, being a mix between some god powers and an exalted angel. The problem here is that Jesus identifies too heavily as a God, and does not fit the character and conduct just a normal celestial angel.

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Statements Which in the Old Testament Are Made Distinctly of Jehovah, God, Taken in the New Testament to Refer to the Lord Jesus Christ

The fourth line of proof of the absolute Deity of Jesus Christ is found in the fact that over and over again statements which in the Old Testament are made distinctly of Jehovah, God, are taken in the New Testament to refer to Jesus Christ. We have not time to illustrate this at length, but will give but one illustration where many might be given. In Jeremiah 11:20 the prophet says, "But, O LORD of hosts, that judgest righteously, that triest the reins and the heart, let me see thy vengeance on them: for unto thee have I revealed my cause." Here the prophet distinctly says that it is Jehovah of Hosts Who judgest and triest the reins and the heart. And in the 17th chapter and the tenth verse Jeremiah represents Jehovah Himself as saying the same thing in these words, "I the LORD search the heart, I try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings." But in the New Testament in Revelation 2:23 the Lord Jesus says, "...I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works." We are distinctly told in the context that it is "The Son of God" who is speaking here. So Jesus claims for Himself in the New Testament what the Lord in the Old Testament says is true of Himself and of Himself alone. In very many other instances, statements which in the Old Testament are made distinctly of God the Father, are taken to refer to Jesus Christ. That is to say, in New Testament thought and doctrine, Jesus Christ occupies the place that God the Father occupies in Old Testament thought and doctrine.
  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

 

The Way the Name of God the Father and Jesus Christ the Son Are Coupled Together

The fifth line of proof of the absolute Deity of our Lord is found in the way in which the name of Jesus Christ is coupled with that of God the Father. In numerous passages His name is coupled with the name of God the Father in a way in which it would be impossible to couple the name of any finite being with that of the Deity. We have time for but a few of the many illustrations that might be given. A striking instance is in the words of our Lord Himself in John 14:23 where we read, "Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him." Here our Lord Jesus does not hesitate to couple Himself with the Father in such a way as to say "We," that is, God the Father and I, will come and make our abode with him. In John 14:1 He said, 'Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me." If Jesus Christ was not God, this is shocking blasphemy. There is absolutely no middle ground between admitting the Deity of Jesus Christ and charging Christ with the most daring and appalling blasphemy of which any man was ever guilty.
  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

Divine Worship to be Given to Jesus Christ

There is a sixth line of proof of the absolute Deity of our Lord Jesus. Those already given have been decisive, each one of the five have been decisive, but this, if possible, is the most decisive of them all, and that is that we are taught in so many words that Jesus Christ should be worshipped as God, both by angels and men. In numerous places in the gospels we see Jesus Christ accepting without hesitation a worship which good men and angels declined with fear and which He Himself taught should be rendered only to God (Matt. 28:9; Luke 24:52; Matt.14:33; Acts 10:25,26; Rev. 22:8,9; Matt. 4:9,10). A curious and very misleading comment is made in the margin of the American Standard Revision upon the meaning of the word translated "worship" in these passages, and that is that "the Greek word translated worship denotes an act of reverence, whether paid to a 'creature' or to the 'Creator."'

Now this is true, but it is utterly misleading; for while this word is used to denote "an act of reverence paid to a creature" by idolaters, our Lord Jesus Himself distinctly says, using exactly the same Greek word, "thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve," and on the other hand he says in John 5:23 that "all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the father."

And in Revelation 5:8-13 the four living creatures and the four and twenty elders are represented as falling down before the Lamb and offering worship to Him just as worship is offered to Him that sitteth upon the throne, that is, God the Father. In Hebrews 1:6 we are told in so many words, "And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him."

One night in the inquiry room in Chicago I stepped up to an intelligent looking man at the back of the room and said to him, "Are you a Christian?" He replied, "I do not suppose you would consider me a Christian." I said, "Why not?" He said, "I am a Unitarian." I said, "What you mean then is that you do not think that Jesus Christ is a person that should be worshipped." He replied, "'That is exactly what I think," and added, "the Bible nowhere says we ought to worship Him." I said, "Who told you that?" He replied, "My pastor," mentioning a prominent Unitarian minister in the city of Boston. I said, "Let me show you something," and I opened my Bible to Hebrews 1:6 and read, "And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him." And he said, "Does it say that?" I handed him the Bible and said, "Read it for yourself," and he read it and said, "I did not know that was in the Bible." I said, "Well it is there, isn't it?" "Yes it is there." Language could not make it plainer. The Bible clearly teaches that Jesus, the Son of God, is to be worshipped as God by angels and men, even as God the Father is worshipped.
  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

Incidental Proofs of the Deity of Jesus Christ

The six lines of proof of the Deity of Jesus Christ which I have given you leave no possibility of doubting that Jesus Christ is God, that Jesus of Nazareth is God manifest in a human person, that He is a being to be worshipped, even as God the Father is worshipped. But there are also incidental proofs of His absolute Deity which, if possible, are in some ways even more convincing than the direct assertions of His Deity.

1. Our Lord Jesus says in Matthew 11:28, "Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest." Now any one that makes a promise like that must either be God, or a lunatic, or an impostor. No one can give rest to all who labor and are heavy laden who come to him unless he is God, and yet Jesus Christ offers to do it. If He offers to do it and fails to do it when men come to Him, then He is either a lunatic or an impostor. If He actually does it, then beyond a question, He is God. And thousands can testify that He really does it. Thousands and tens of thousands who have labored and were heavy laden and crushed, and for whom there was no help in man, have come to Jesus Christ and He actually has given them rest. Surely then He is not merely a great man, but He is in fact God.

2. Again in John 14:1 Jesus Christ demands that we put the same faith in Him that we put in God the Father and promises that in such faith we will find a cure for all trouble and anxiety of heart. His words are, "Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me." It is clear that He demands the same absolute faith to be put in Himself that is to be put in God Almighty. Now in Jeremiah 17:5, Scripture with which our Lord Jesus was perfectly familiar, we read "Thus saith the LORD; Cursed be the man that trusteth in man," and yet with this clear curse pronounced upon all who trust in man, Jesus Christ demands that we put trust in Him just as we put trust in God. It is the strongest possible assertion of Deity on His part. No one but God has a right to make such a demand, and Jesus Christ, when He makes this demand, must either be God or an impostor; but thousands and tens of thousands have found that when they did believe in Him just as they believe in God, their hearts were delivered from trouble no matter what their bereavement or circumstances might be.

3. Again, the Lord Jesus demanded supreme and absolute love for Himself. It is clear as day that no one but God has a right to demand such a love, but there can be no question that Jesus did demand it. In Matthew 10:37 He said to His disciples, "He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me: and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me," and in Luke 14:26,33, he says. "If any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple. So likewise, whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple." There can be no question that this is a demand on Jesus' part of supreme and absolute love to Himself, a love that puts even the dearest relations of life in an entirely secondary place. No one but God has a right to make any such demand, but our Lord Jesus made it, and therefore, He must be God.

4. In John 10:30 the Lord Jesus claimed absolute equality with the Father. He said, "I and my Father are one."

5. In John 14:9 our Lord Jesus went so far as to say, "...he that hath seen me hath seen the Father." He claims here to be so absolutely God that to see Him is to see the Father Who dwelleth in Him.

6. In John 17:3 He says, "And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent." In other words, He claims that the knowledge of Himself is as essential a part of eternal life as knowledge of God the Father.

Conclusion

There is no room left to doubt the absolute Deity of Jesus Christ. It is a glorious truth. The Saviour in Whom we believe is God, a Saviour for Whom nothing is too hard, a Saviour Who can save from the uttermost and save to the uttermost. Oh, how we should rejoice that we have no merely human Saviour, but a Saviour Who is absolutely God in all of His fulness and perfection.

On the other hand, how black is the guilt of rejecting such a Saviour as this! Whoever refuses to accept Jesus as his Divine Saviour and Lord is guilty of the enormous sin of rejecting a Saviour Who is God. Many a man thinks he is good because he never stole, or committed murder, or cheated. "Of what great sin am I guilty?" he complacently asks. Have you ever accepted Jesus Christ? "No." Well, then, you are guilty of the awful and damning sin of rejecting a Saviour Who is God.

"But," you answer, "'I do not believe that He is God." That does not change the fact nor lessen your guilt before God. Questioning a fact or denying a fact never changes it, regardless of what Mary Baker Eddy may say to the contrary.

Suppose a man had a wife who was one of the noblest, purest, truest women that ever lived, would her husband's questioning her purity and nobility change the fact? It would not. It would simply make that husband guilty of awful slander; it would simply prove that man to be an outrageous scoundrel.

So, denying the Deity of Jesus Christ does not make His Deity any less a fact, but it does make the denier of His Deity guilty of awful, incredible blasphemous slander against the Lord God of Heaven. It also proves that you who deny His Deity to be ________________ . I leave your own conscience to finish the sentence thus begun.
  The Deity of Jesus Christ by R. A. Torrey

32.03.13.01 Arianism

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See 38.03.05 Heresies and Sects, Arianism (reproduced below)

38.03.05 Arianism (4th Century) (318 A.D.) <go to top>

Jesus was divine, but a lesser, created being, but yet more than human.

Arius (c.250-336 AD) taught that Christ was a creature made by God. By disguising his heresy using orthodox or near-orthodox terminology, he was able to sow great confusion in the Church. He was able to muster the support of many bishops, while others excommunicated him. Arianism was solemnly condemned in 325 at the First Council of Nicaea, which defined the divinity of Christ, and in 381 at the First Council of Constantinople, which defined the divinity of the Holy Spirit. Arius disagreed with the Bishop of Alexander of Alexandria's idea of the Trinity. Arius thought that Alexander was confusing the Son with the Father, who stressed the divinity of the Logos and also his exact likeness with the Father. Arius argued that Jesus, the Logos, was a "creature" who was "begotten" of the Father, who was "unbegotten." Arius, like Origen, believed that the Father was the only true God. The Nicene Creed was written to respond to Arianism.

Athanasius (c 296-373 AD) later Bishop of Alexandria, was on the other side of the issue argued that the Word (John 1:1-18) became man, the Word did not come into a man. In 325 AD Emperor Constantine ordered a debate to settle the matter. This church council took place in Nicea (in Bithynia). Arius lost the debate, and the view of Athanasius became the view of the church. The doctrine of Homoousios (that Christ was of one or the same substance with the Father) was affirmed. This council produced the Nicene Creed.

Nicene Creed - “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of all thingsboth visible and invisible; and in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, Only begotten of the Father, that is to say, of the substance of the Father, God of God and Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made, both things in heaven and things on earth; who, for us men and for our salvation, came down and was made flesh, was made man, suffered, and rose again on the third day, went up into the heavens, and is to come again to judge both the quick and the dead; and in the Holy Ghost.” 

By some estimates about half of Christendom were Arians at its peak in 4th century, and perhaps because of this Arianism was one of or the greatest threat to Christianity of all these heresies.

What Arianism does is to offer to the Christian that we worship a good man. That is all that they really see Christ as.

Now, Arianism offered to these redeemed men, worshiping Christ -- what? A creature -- a being who actually had commenced to live; a being made by a swift, potent volition of Almighty God; a being that could be duplicated -- yes, duplicated as often as God might wish to will it -- duplicated as easily as archangels or men or planets can be duplicated -- Arianism offered to these redeemed men worshiping Christ that creature! Surely they had to reject the offer. In the name of all they had inherited, and all they had experienced, and all they had done, they had to reject the offer. Their rejection of all creaturehood in Christ was not only a redemptional consistency, but also a redemptional necessity. It was not so much their theology which was in danger as their Christian experience itself. Indeed, I myself believe that had Arianism been triumphant the Christian faith would have been swept entirely away. Our experience with later depreciations of our Lord's person indicates what would have taken place on a large scale, namely, the gradual devitalization of personal experience in Christ, and then, with this devitalization, the rapid yielding to rationalistic demand until every Christian doctrine was emptied of its original meaning.

Now we can understand why the Athanasians were obliged to go into metaphysics. The Arian offer was too fundamental in its relations, and too subtle in its statements, and too ingenious in its scriptural defense, to be met on the surface in a practical way. There is nothing so slippery as a heresy trying to enter the church. To check it, the practical mind and the Scripture method have ever been completely helpless. There is not one Christian truth which can, be fully defended against heresy, save by using more or less of metaphysics, for every final meaning lies deep in metaphysics. Every Arian contention had an important metaphysical implication. The very idea of creaturehood itself is at last a metaphysical idea.

Let us, then, come at the pith of this metaphysical work of the Athanasians, and try to make it clear to our modern way of thinking. The pith of the matter is in these few words: "' Very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father." The Greek reads thus:

*theon alethinon ek theou alethinou, gennethenta, ou poethenta, homoousion toi patri*.

The Latin reads thus: *Deum verum de Deo vero, natum, non factum, unius substantiae cum Patre.* To bring out the significance of these words, I will make a somewhat arbitrary analysis of them. There are two statements, and then each statement is briefly explained by a peculiar phrase. The first statement is that Jesus Christ is "very God," or, as a theologian today would say, absolutely God.

The explanation of this first statement is in the peculiar phrase "being of one substance with the Father." Upon this term substance a surprising amount of learned research has been expended with a small amount of philosophical insight. The instant meaning of the word is of little concern, for it was nothing but a weapon, and an accidental weapon at that, to protect an underlying and extremely important idea, namely, that the Father and the Son are what they are by means of one and the same organism; that they are therefore, structurally necessary to each other, so that neither can exist at all without the other.

The second statement, indicating the method of this organic divine life, is that Jesus Christ, the Son, is "of very God." The explanation of this second statement is in the peculiar phrase "begotten, not made." This explanation is really twofold: First, there is the term "begotten," which evidently had come from Saint John's "only begotten." (See Saint John's gospel 1.14, 18; and 3.16; and 1 John 4.9.) Then this term is itself further and negatively explained by the expression "not made." As if they had said: Jesus Christ is of God, but not in the sense that a creature is of God by optional creation. Christ is begotten, but not made. Here again they were compelled to use the weapon at hand, but it is plain enough what they meant. They were trying to say that our Lord has a derived being, but the derivation is necessary and without beginning and without resultant inferiority. The Father is the causal ground of the Son's existence, but the Father does not choose to will the Son into existence; he must eternally do so by the very process of his own eternal life.

This causing the existence of the Son is the method by which the Father is the Father, and without being the Father he could not exist at all It is loose speech to call this process of begetting the Son creation, I think; but we may do so, if we are only careful to insist that it is necessary and eternal creation. Many times, and even in recent years, we have been told that this eternal generation, or begetting, of the Son of God is empty verbiage, a sort of theological rhetoric, incapable of conception by the human mind. I entirely fail to respond to the objection; and I fail to comprehend how any thinking man, familiar with the struggle over the Athanasian contention, can ever have even the slightest difficulty in clearly grasping the meaning of Athanasius. Surely we may conceive of two real persons; both of them without beginning; both of them alike in attributes, so that neither one of them is inferior to the other; and yet one of them is the cause, furnishes the power by which the other one has all his life; and then we may conceive that the causal person lives only by giving -- just as the caused person lives only by receiving; and thus they exist by means of one and the same organism. And, now that I am at the point, I will dare to affirm that this eternal generation of the Son is not only conceivable, it is also one of the most fruitful conceptions in all Christian thinking. It helps us to understand all those sayings of Christ where, at one stroke, he insists upon both his equality with the Father and his dependence upon the Father, for these sayings reach widely beyond our Saviour's temporary condition of humiliation. And not only this, the Athanasian conception helps us to enter into the very atmosphere of the plan of redemption. Devotionally, to a Christian man, this supreme Christian creed is of more worth than The Imitation of Christ. The problem of the early church, given in a word, was to protect, under perilous attack, the whole significance of their redemptional experience in Jesus Christ. And they did this, in full consistency with all their Christian opinions, by maintaining that our Redeemer, Jesus Christ, is, in his own person, eternally, necessarily, and absolutely God. It was the greatest piece of work ever done by uninspired men.  Olin Alfred Curtis (1850-1918) - The Christian Faith chapter 16 (1905)

 

32.03.13.02 Athanasian Creed (A.D. 293-373)

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Whoever desires to be saved should above all hold to the catholic faith.

Anyone who does not keep it whole and unbroken will doubtless perish eternally.

Now this is the catholic faith:

    That we worship one God in trinity and the trinity in unity,
    neither blending their persons
    nor dividing their essence.
        For the person of the Father is a distinct person,
        the person of the Son is another,
        and that of the Holy Spirit still another.
        But the divinity of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is one,
        their glory equal, their majesty coeternal.

    What quality the Father has, the Son has, and the Holy Spirit has.
        The Father is uncreated,
        the Son is uncreated,
        the Holy Spirit is uncreated.

        The Father is immeasurable,
        the Son is immeasurable,
        the Holy Spirit is immeasurable.

        The Father is eternal,
        the Son is eternal,
        the Holy Spirit is eternal.

            And yet there are not three eternal beings;
            there is but one eternal being.
            So too there are not three uncreated or immeasurable beings;
            there is but one uncreated and immeasurable being.

    Similarly, the Father is almighty,
        the Son is almighty,
        the Holy Spirit is almighty.
            Yet there are not three almighty beings;
            there is but one almighty being.

        Thus the Father is God,
        the Son is God,
        the Holy Spirit is God.
            Yet there are not three gods;
            there is but one God.

        Thus the Father is Lord,
        the Son is Lord,
        the Holy Spirit is Lord.
            Yet there are not three lords;
            there is but one Lord.

    Just as Christian truth compels us
    to confess each person individually
    as both God and Lord,
    so catholic religion forbids us
    to say that there are three gods or lords.

    The Father was neither made nor created nor begotten from anyone.
    The Son was neither made nor created;
    he was begotten from the Father alone.
    The Holy Spirit was neither made nor created nor begotten;
    he proceeds from the Father and the Son.

    Accordingly there is one Father, not three fathers;
    there is one Son, not three sons;
    there is one Holy Spirit, not three holy spirits.

    Nothing in this trinity is before or after,
    nothing is greater or smaller;
    in their entirety the three persons
    are coeternal and coequal with each other.

    So in everything, as was said earlier,
    we must worship their trinity in their unity
    and their unity in their trinity.

Anyone then who desires to be saved
should think thus about the trinity.

But it is necessary for eternal salvation
that one also believe in the incarnation
of our Lord Jesus Christ faithfully.

Now this is the true faith:

    That we believe and confess
    that our Lord Jesus Christ, God's Son,
    is both God and human, equally.

     He is God from the essence of the Father,
    begotten before time;
    and he is human from the essence of his mother,
    born in time;
    completely God, completely human,
    with a rational soul and human flesh;
    equal to the Father as regards divinity,
    less than the Father as regards humanity.

    Although he is God and human,
    yet Christ is not two, but one.
    He is one, however,
    not by his divinity being turned into flesh,
    but by God's taking humanity to himself.
    He is one,
    certainly not by the blending of his essence,
    but by the unity of his person.
    For just as one human is both rational soul and flesh,
    so too the one Christ is both God and human.

    He suffered for our salvation;
    he descended to hell;
    he arose from the dead;
    he ascended to heaven;
    he is seated at the Father's right hand;
    from there he will come to judge the living and the dead.
    At his coming all people will arise bodily
    and give an accounting of their own deeds.
    Those who have done good will enter eternal life,
    and those who have done evil will enter eternal fire.

This is the catholic faith:
one cannot be saved without believing it firmly and faithfully.

32.03.13.03 Unitarianism

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32.03.80 Groups, Individuals, Movements Rejecting the Deity of Jesus Christ

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